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Flashcards in Fundamentals Of Nutrition Deck (42):
1

List the BMI classifications fo underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese stage 1, obese stage 2, and morbidly obese

Underweight = < 18.5

Normal = 18.5-24.9

Overweight = 25.0-29.9

Obese stage 1 = 30.0-34.9

Obese stage 2 = 35.0-39.9

Morbidly obese = > 40.0

2

How many calories are in the following?

A gram of alcohol

A gram of protein

A gram of carbs

A gram of fat

Alcohol = 7

Protein = 4

Carbs = 4

Fat = 9

3

The food pyramid is based on a 2,000 cal/day diet and recommends the following ratios:

10-15% protein, 25-35% fat, rest from carbs

4

Essential fatty acids

Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid

5

List the essential amino acids, which are obtained from the diet

Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine
Histidine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Arginine (in children)

6

List the non-essential amino acids

Alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine

7

Most absorption occurs in the?

Duodenum

8

What are the water soluble vitamins?

All of the B vitamins and vitamin C

Rest are lipid soluble

9

Thiamine

Vitamin B1

10

Riboflavin

Vitamin B2

11

Niacin

Vitamin B3

12

Pantothenic acid

Vitamin B5

13

Pyridoxine

Vitamin B6

14

Biotin

Vitamin B7

15

Folic acid

Vitamin B9

16

Cobalamin

Vitamin B12

17

Ascorbate

Vitamin C

18

Retinol

Retinoic acid

Vitamin A

19

Calcitriol

Vitamin D

20

What is associated with vitamin B2/riboflavin deficiency?

Chellosis, angular stomatitis, dermatitis

Mouth symptoms

B2 is found in milk!

21

What is associated with vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency?

Pellagra with diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia, death (4 D’s)

22

What is associated with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency?

Scurvy with petechiae, ecchymoses, bleeding gums

23

What is associated with vitamin b1/thiamine deficiency?

Beriberi, polyneuritis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

24

What is associated with vitamin b5/pantothenic acid deficiency?

This is rare!

Fatigue, sleep disturbances, impaired coordination

25

What is associated with vitamin b6/pyridoxine deficiency?

Nasolateral seborrhea, glossitis, peripheral neuropathy

26

What is associated with vitamin b12/cobalamin deficiency?

Pernicious anemia, neurological disorders, pallor

27

What is associated with a deficiency in biotin?

Fatigue, depression, nausea, dermatitis, muscle pain

28

What is associated with a deficiency of folate?

Megaloblastic anemia, mental status changes, glossitis, pallor

29

Thiamine/b1 deficiency could be caused by?

Alcoholism

B1 is involved with the TCA cycle

30

Dry beriberi

Muscle wasting, partial paralysis

31

Wet beriberi

Cardiac failure, peripheral edema

32

Niacin/b3 deficiency can be caused by?

Hartnup disease

Tryptophan deficiency —> niacin deficiency

33

Deficiency in pyridoxine/b6 can be caused by?

Isoniazid therapy

34

Deficiency in biotin/b7 can be caused by?

Excessive consumption of raw eggs (avidin binds to biotin)

35

Deficiency of this in pregnancy can cause spina bifida:

Folic acid/b9

36

Deficiency in cobalamin/b12 can be a used by?

Pernicious anemia

Chronic pancreatitis

Total vegetarian diet long-term

Resection of terminal ileum (Crohn’s disease!)

37

This vitamin can be teratogenic in pregnancy:

Vitamin A

38

Form of vitamin D from plants

D2

39

Form of vitamin D from sun or milk

D3 (cholecalciferol)

40

Storage form of vitamin D in the liver

Calcifediol

41

Active form of vitamin D formed in the kidney

Calcitriol

42

Vitamin D deficiency can cause?

Childhood rickets or osteomalacia in adults

Chostek’s/Trousseau’s signs

Breast fed only infants!