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Flashcards in Fundamentals of Nutrition Deck (31):
1

Which omega do we get too much of and which not enough?

Too much omega 6, not enough omega 3

2

Where can you find the following in diet? K+ Na+ Cl- Ca2+ PO43- Mg2+

K+ Unprocessed foods
Na+ Dietary salt, animal origin
Cl- Dietary salt
Ca2+ Dairy, soybeans, dark greens
PO43- Dairy, wheat, beans
Mg2+ Meat, fish, vegetables

3

What system are things digested into?

Hepatic portal system

4

What is the BMI ranges?

<18.5 Underweight
18.5-25 Normal
25-30 Overweight
30-35 Obese 1
35-40 Obese 2
Over 40 Morbidly Obese

5

What is a complex carbohydrate vs a simple one? Starch vs fiber what categories are they?

Complex carbs have low glycemic index, no high sugar spike. Starch simple, fiber complex.

6

What are the water soluble vitamins?

Bs and C, all rest lipid soluble (ADKE)

7

What are the essential and conditionally essential fatty acids?

Essential: Linoleic acid, alpha linoleic acid
conditional: EPA, DHA

8

What are the essential AA's?

FML HWK I TV

9

What are the electrolytes? What are the minerals? What are the trace minerals? What are the ultratrace minerals

Sodium, potassium, chloride
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sulfur
Iodine, selenium, copper, zinc
Manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum

10

What are the Acidic AAs and their letters? What are the Basic AAs and their numbers?

Glutamate E Aspartate D
Arginine R Lysine K Histidine H

11

What are the 4 components of total energy expenditure?

Basal metabolic rate (not same as resting)
Digestion
Physical Activity
Rando Thermogenesis

12

What are components of small intestine? Where are most components absorbed? What two important comoponents are absorbed in the ileum? If get ileum removed what is disease system called?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Duodenum
Vitamin B12, bile acids
Crohns disease

13

Units of BMI?

kg/m^2

14

In food pyramid, what percentage calories from protein, fat, and carbs? Based on how many kcal/day? What are some of the emphasis?

Protein 10-15
Fat 25-35
rest is carbs
2000 kcal/day
Unprocessed carbs, whole grains, no added sugars, fruits and veggies

15

How much protein per kg of bodyweight do we need? How much protein do we need for 1g Nitrogen?

0.7-0.8 g protein per kg
6.25g protein/1g nitrogen

16

how many kilolories in 5 g of fat?

5g x 9 Caloris/g = 45 Calories

17

How many Calories is 1g of alcohol?

7 Calories

18

What is Vitamin B1? For deficiency, what cycle will you have problems with? What type of people does this affect? What are some common symptons?

Thiamine
TCA cycle
Alcoholics
Weakness of eye muscles
Beriberi: muscle wasting, cardiac problems

19

What is Vitamin B2?
How do you usually get the deficiency?
What kind of reactions are the associated enzymes involved with?
What are some common symptoms?

Riboflavin
Poor dietary intake or malabsorption
Oxidation reduction reactions
Swollen mouth and bumps

20

What is Vitamin B3?
What is the deficiency from?
What are the clinical manifestations?

Niacin
Hartnup disease--> impaired AA absorption, tryptophan deficiency, niacin deficiency
awful rash, diarrhea, dementia

21

What is Vitamin B5?
How is deficiency caused? What are common symptoms?

Pantothenic acid
Deficiency from extreme starvation
dermatitis, numbness, muscle cramps, a lot

22

What is Vitamin B6?
What is deficiency from?
What are some clinical manifestations

Pyridoxine
Deficiency from isoniazid therapy
Sideroblastic anemia, convulsions

23

What is vitamin B7?
How caused
COmmon symptons

Biotin
Excessive comsumption of raw eggs
Allopecia, rashes, bowe inflamation

24

What is vitamin B9?
What is a common effect of deficiency

Folic acid
Deficiency in pregnancy--- Spina Bifida neural tube defect

25

What is Vitamin B12?
How is deficiency caused?

Cobalamin
Can happen from resection of terminal illeum
Called pernicious anemia
Hard to absorb, need intrinsic factor and terminal illeum

26

What is Vitamin C? What is deficiency called?
How do you get deficiency?
Common symptoms?

Ascorbate
Scurvy
Diet devoid of citrus fruits and green vegetables
Poor wound healing, easy bruising, increased bleeding

27

What is vitamin A main functions?

Vision and maintenance of epithelium
Important for eyes, deficiency will give you night blindness, stored in fat so hard to be deficient and hard to get back
Retinol, retinoic acid, retinal

28

How does Vitamin A do Epithelium maintenance

Retinol and retinoic acid vind to intracellular receptor (zinc fingers), regulate transcription through specific response elements, normal differentiaiton of epithelial cells into specialized tissue)

29

How does vitamin A do vision?

Photo induced conversion of trans retinal to cis retinal, transfer to opsin in rod cells ---? rhodopsin
Darkness---> glutamate release
gutamate ---> inhibition of bipolar cells
Signal initiaion

30

What is vitamin A deficiency from? What are clinical manifestations? What is its toxicity potential?

Deficiency from extreme malnutrition, fat malabsorption and liver cirrhosis
Nigh blindness, metaplasia of corneal epitheium, frequent infections

31

What are the forms of vitamin d?
What are the functions?
What are Vitamin D deficiencies

D2 (plants)
D3 (sun exposure, milk)
Calcifediol (storage in liver)
Calcitriol (active vitamin d)

Increases absorption of phosphate in gi tract, reabsorptoin of calcium in kidneys, bone resorption by osteoclast activation

Childhood rickets, osteomalacia, delayd growth, bowed legs, thickened wrist and ankles