Flashcards in Fundamentals of Nutrition Deck (31):
Which omega do we get too much of and which not enough?
Too much omega 6, not enough omega 3
Where can you find the following in diet? K+ Na+ Cl- Ca2+ PO43- Mg2+
K+ Unprocessed foods
Na+ Dietary salt, animal origin
Cl- Dietary salt
Ca2+ Dairy, soybeans, dark greens
PO43- Dairy, wheat, beans
Mg2+ Meat, fish, vegetables
What system are things digested into?
Hepatic portal system
What is the BMI ranges?
30-35 Obese 1
35-40 Obese 2
Over 40 Morbidly Obese
What is a complex carbohydrate vs a simple one? Starch vs fiber what categories are they?
Complex carbs have low glycemic index, no high sugar spike. Starch simple, fiber complex.
What are the water soluble vitamins?
Bs and C, all rest lipid soluble (ADKE)
What are the essential and conditionally essential fatty acids?
Essential: Linoleic acid, alpha linoleic acid
conditional: EPA, DHA
What are the essential AA's?
FML HWK I TV
What are the electrolytes? What are the minerals? What are the trace minerals? What are the ultratrace minerals
Sodium, potassium, chloride
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sulfur
Iodine, selenium, copper, zinc
Manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum
What are the Acidic AAs and their letters? What are the Basic AAs and their numbers?
Glutamate E Aspartate D
Arginine R Lysine K Histidine H
What are the 4 components of total energy expenditure?
Basal metabolic rate (not same as resting)
What are components of small intestine? Where are most components absorbed? What two important comoponents are absorbed in the ileum? If get ileum removed what is disease system called?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Vitamin B12, bile acids
Units of BMI?
In food pyramid, what percentage calories from protein, fat, and carbs? Based on how many kcal/day? What are some of the emphasis?
rest is carbs
Unprocessed carbs, whole grains, no added sugars, fruits and veggies
How much protein per kg of bodyweight do we need? How much protein do we need for 1g Nitrogen?
0.7-0.8 g protein per kg
6.25g protein/1g nitrogen
how many kilolories in 5 g of fat?
5g x 9 Caloris/g = 45 Calories
How many Calories is 1g of alcohol?
What is Vitamin B1? For deficiency, what cycle will you have problems with? What type of people does this affect? What are some common symptons?
Weakness of eye muscles
Beriberi: muscle wasting, cardiac problems
What is Vitamin B2?
How do you usually get the deficiency?
What kind of reactions are the associated enzymes involved with?
What are some common symptoms?
Poor dietary intake or malabsorption
Oxidation reduction reactions
Swollen mouth and bumps
What is Vitamin B3?
What is the deficiency from?
What are the clinical manifestations?
Hartnup disease--> impaired AA absorption, tryptophan deficiency, niacin deficiency
awful rash, diarrhea, dementia
What is Vitamin B5?
How is deficiency caused? What are common symptoms?
Deficiency from extreme starvation
dermatitis, numbness, muscle cramps, a lot
What is Vitamin B6?
What is deficiency from?
What are some clinical manifestations
Deficiency from isoniazid therapy
Sideroblastic anemia, convulsions
What is vitamin B7?
Excessive comsumption of raw eggs
Allopecia, rashes, bowe inflamation
What is vitamin B9?
What is a common effect of deficiency
Deficiency in pregnancy--- Spina Bifida neural tube defect
What is Vitamin B12?
How is deficiency caused?
Can happen from resection of terminal illeum
Called pernicious anemia
Hard to absorb, need intrinsic factor and terminal illeum
What is Vitamin C? What is deficiency called?
How do you get deficiency?
Diet devoid of citrus fruits and green vegetables
Poor wound healing, easy bruising, increased bleeding
What is vitamin A main functions?
Vision and maintenance of epithelium
Important for eyes, deficiency will give you night blindness, stored in fat so hard to be deficient and hard to get back
Retinol, retinoic acid, retinal
How does Vitamin A do Epithelium maintenance
Retinol and retinoic acid vind to intracellular receptor (zinc fingers), regulate transcription through specific response elements, normal differentiaiton of epithelial cells into specialized tissue)
How does vitamin A do vision?
Photo induced conversion of trans retinal to cis retinal, transfer to opsin in rod cells ---? rhodopsin
Darkness---> glutamate release
gutamate ---> inhibition of bipolar cells
What is vitamin A deficiency from? What are clinical manifestations? What is its toxicity potential?
Deficiency from extreme malnutrition, fat malabsorption and liver cirrhosis
Nigh blindness, metaplasia of corneal epitheium, frequent infections