Flashcards in FunMed: PBL 1 (Childhood Poverty) Deck (20)
Define absolute poverty
Severe deprivation of basic human needs including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information
How did the labour government define poverty?
60% of median income or below is known as the poverty line, creating an income threshold
How many children in the UK are currently living in poverty?
3.7 million children, 1.7 million in severe poverty
What is meant by the 'poverty cycle'?
Seemingly endless continuation of poverty through generations as due to falling below the level of resourcefulness, a chain of events follow such as lower levels of education, lack of employment (can lead to criminal activity), to addiction, to shattered health, early death and breakdown of family, and this also leads to a bleaker future for the next generation
Briefly overview the poverty cycle
Child grows up in poverty --> significantly disadvantaged in education and skills --> struggles to get job --> fails to escape poverty cycle --> family in poverty --> child grows up in poverty
How does child poverty affect a child's health?
~ 2.5x more likely to suffer from chronic illness at age 3 if they're in house with income less than £10k than those on income greater than £52k
How does poverty affect a child's education?
Less than half (34%) of all children entitled to free school meals achieve 5 GCSEs (C or above), 61% of all other children
How may 'fuel poverty' affect a child's health?
This is where a decision must be made about whether food or heating is more essential, henceforth making children more vulnerable
How may poverty affect a child's mental health?
There is a stigma around poverty which may lead to bullying and those living in poverty also fail to feel safe when playing or socialising in their own area; this lack of socialisation and access to safe space may diminish mental health
What is meant by social exclusion?
Where the stigma around poverty may lead to bullying and isolation of children
What is meant by the Gillick and Fraser guidelines?
The guidelines by which a doctor can proceed to give advice and treatment provided they are satisfied with certain criteria
Outline the Gillick and Fraser guidelines
1) that they can understand the doctors advice (competency)
2) if the doctor cannot persuade them to inform their parents that they are seeking contraceptive advice
3) very likely to continue having sex with or without contraception anyway
4) unless receive contraceptive advice/treatment their physical and/or mental health is likely to suffer
5) the best interests of the patient require the doctor to provide contraceptive advice without parental consent
What support is available to someone living in poverty in East London?
Entitlement to free 15 hrs childcare, child benefit of £225, don't have to pay council tax, healthy start vouchers, healthcare visitor
What are healthy start vouchers?
Vouchers allow those in poverty to buy milk, fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables, as well as infant formula at shops
What is the role of the healthcare visitor?
Ensures good health of the child as well as advises about support services available
What is an intrauterine system (IUS)?
Small plastic device fitted into uterus through cervix, slowly releases progesterone
What is the intrauterine device (IUD)?
Also known as the copper coil and it's a small plastic and copper device fitted into the uterus through cervix
What is Barker's hypothesis?
Those children from more disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to have smaller birth weights and be malnourished, and are therefore more likely to develop cardiac problems in later life
What is a 'play therapist'?
Someone that will come and play with the children, in order to alleviate some of the stress on the underprivileged parent