Further Stuff From 012 Module Flashcards Preview

Arson - Module > Further Stuff From 012 Module > Flashcards

Flashcards in Further Stuff From 012 Module Deck (46):
1

Legally you are allowed to set fire to your own Property, unless you:





(Progress Test)

- Intend to cause loss to someone else as a result of the fire.
- Know or ought to know that the fire will endanger life.
- Know that the fire is likely to destroy or damage someone else's property as a consequence.

2

The Fire Service Specialist Fire Investigator will liaise with the designated Police Fire Investigation Liaison Officer or other member of Police in relation to four specific matters:

Name those four matters.



(Progress Test)

- Handover of the fire scene.
- Assess to the fire scene.
- Process for examination and investigation.
- Identification and collection of evidence at the fire scene

3

In determining the 'seat of the Fire' list some of the matters the specialist fire investigator should consider.






(Progress Test) (Practical Question)

- Witnesses' Reports.
- When they first noticed the fire and where they were at the time.
- The state of the fire at that time.
- Wind direction and speed, weather.
- The direction of spread.
- The colour of the flames and smoke.
- Severity of the damage.
- Depth of charring.
- The presence of starting devices.
- Reports and opinions from other specialists.

4

List five examples where carelessness may cause a fire.






(Progress Test)

- Misusing electricity.
- Children playing with matches, cigarette lighters and so on.
- Burning off paint.
- Vagrants lighting fires.
- Welding and other industrial processes.
- Leaving clothes near heating.
- Wrapping up live ashes in paper.
- Ironing.
- Setting off fireworks.
- Using or storing flammable materials.
- Burning rubbish.
- Using domestic or camp fires.
- Leaving a stove or heater on.
- Leaving fat unattended while cooking.
- Smoking.

5

List 5 examples of material used to start a fire.






(Progress Test)

Materials used to start a fire include:
- Readily available combustible material - rubbish.
- Molotov cocktails.
- Candles.
- Chemical igniters.
- Timing devices.
- Electric matches.
- Electrical apparatus.
- Matches and cigarettes.
- Trailers

6

Detail the Police responsibilities at a fire scene examination and investigation.






(Progress Test)

The Police must:
- conduct the criminal investigation or coronial enquiry.
- undertake responsibility for the protection, collection and recording of forensic evidence.
- The collection and removal of material from a fire crime scene will only be done by Police or other agencies with the authority to remove items.
- The preservation, analysis and subsequent disposition of any such material is the responsibility of Police or other agency with the appropriate authority.

7

Describe the powers conferred by Section 28 of the Fire Service Act 1975 on the person in charge of the Fire Service at the fire site.





(Progress Test) (Short Answer) (Pg 9- Not manual)

- Enter private property when it is on fire or endangered, or when entry is essential to performing a necessary duty.
- Close roads.
- Remove vehicles impeding the Fire Service. If necessary they ca break into vehicles for that purpose.
- Remove people who are in danger or interfering with operations,using reasonable force if necessary.
- Do anything else that is reasonably necessary for the protection of life and property.


Police may exercise these powers if called upon to do so by the member of the Fire Service in charge of the fire (sec32(2) FSA 1975)

Police officers have no right to exercise these powers simply because they are present at a fire.

8

What is the circumstantial evidence from which an offenders intent may be inferred from?

- The Offenders actions and words before, during and after the event.
- The surrounding circumstances.
- The nature of the act itself.

9

1. Is Tenancy an interest in land? Can a tenant be convicted of Recklessly damaging by fire? What is the related case law?


2. What was held in R v Wilson?


(Short Answer) (Page 16 Module)

1.
- Yes tenancy is an interest
- Tenant cannot be charged with Recklessly damaging by fire
- Case Law - R v Wilson 2008


2.
The defendant was attempting to manufacture methamphetamine at his rented property, when the clan lab ignited and house burned down. In addition to drugs charges, Wilson was charged with recklessly damaging the house by fire under section 267(1)(b).

The Court of Appeal ruled that he could not be convicted of arson as his tenancy of the property was an interest in that property, and therefore provided him with a defence.



If...
- A tenant damages by fire intention may be convicted if caused loss to any person (267(1)(c))
- Damage is intentional or reckless a tenant may be convicted if he/she knew that danger was likely to ensue (267(1)(a))
- A tenant otherwise cannot be convicted of recklessly damaging the tenanted property by fire (267(1)(b)).

10

What was held in R v Harpur?

(The Court may) have regard to the conduct viewed cumulatively up to the point when the conduct in question stops..... the defendant's conduct (may) be considered in its entirety. Considering how much remains to be done... is always relevant, though not determinative.

11

What was held in R v Hallam?




(Short Answer) (Pg 31 - Module)

On a charge of knowingly having possession of an explosive substance, it must be proved that the offender knowingly ad the substance in his possession and also knew it to be an explosive substance.

12

What are some possible injuries through hazards?

- Inhalation of toxic substances (e.g car fires emit particularly toxic and harmful gases).
- Ingestion of particles etc.
- Cuts/Wounds from sharp objects.
- Air borne dusts, particles.
- Tripping on fire debris.
- Falling down, over , onto or into any obstructions or cavities
- Items from above falling onto you or hitting objects and causing a chain reaction.

To identify the best method of protection, you must consider:
- An assessment of each of the above.
- A Strategy to prevent an occupancy or to mitigate its impact.

13

What clothing items are required by the on-scene investigator?

- A suitable helmet (that complies with the relevant safety standard.
- A pair of overalls.
- Nose and Mouth filter, a full face respirator of full BA (if required and qualified)
- Gloves
- Safety glasses
- Heavy duty footwear with steal soles and toe caps.

14

When will a specialist fire investigator be called to a scene?

- Fires where fatalities occur;
- Fires where serious (life threatening) fire related injury has occurred;
- Structure fires where the cause is suspicious or cannot be determined;
- Significant fire spread across a property boundary;
- Fires in buildings were built-in fire safety features have failed, or not performed to known or expected standards;
- Structure fires of 3rd alarm equivalent (at least six appliance) or greater, that may have significant regional or national consequence;
- Any other fire, upon request from Police or other agency.

15

What are the responsibilities of the Fire Service Investigation Liaison Officers (FSILO's)?

- Arranging Fire Service Specialist Fire Investigator attendance at fire scene where requested by Police;
- Establishing and maintaining effective working relationships with relevant Police Fire Investigation Liaison Officers (FILOs) in the respective Police districts/areas.

16

What are the responsibilities or a Fire Investigation Liaison Officer (FILOs)?

Police have established a Fire Investigation Liaison Officer (FILO) position in each Police district.

FILOs have responsibility for:
- Attending every fire that results in serious injury or death;
- Co-ordinating fire investigations in their designated area/district;
- Arranging Police attendance at fire scenes where required;
- Maintaining effective working relationships with the relevant Fire Service Investigation Liaison Officer (FSLIO) and Fire Service Specialist Fire Investigators;
- Assisting areas or districts with fire investigation related queries;
- Ensure communication is maintained with the Police National Fire Investigation Co-ordination, Police District Intel Manager, and District Crime Manager where appropriate;
- Coordinating fire Investigation training for any Police employees within the area/district if needed;
- Providing other advice and expertise as required.

17

What are the four main building materials?

Timber:
-Normally burn and char but in most instances will (if thick enough) maintain sufficient integrity.
- When entering timber structure, take note of thickness of structural members the loss it is carrying and and sound emanating from structural members.

Steel:
- In initial stages of fire, unprotected steel will expand and can cause internal and external walls to be pushed out. However if there in sufficient fuel available the unprotected steel will loose strength and collapse, pulling walls inwardly.
- When the heated steel is cooled by water or the passage of time it tends to contract and may: ~fall off supports or similar or ~remain intact loosely but may collapse during excavation or movement of items with little or no warning.

NOTE: Steel will rarely melt but at 1600 degrees it will be reduced to less than 10% of its oringinal strength.

Concrete:
- Concrete and in particular tilt slab constructionis the most unpredictable as it ca be affected by low fire temperature and topple like a deck of cards in all directions.
- When subjected to fire, concrete can break away at the surface (spalling) and steel reinforcing may be exposed to sufficient heat to lose its strength.
- Concrete spalling - look for exposed steel in concrete,discoloured areas of concrete such as blue or green and cracking.

Masonry:
- Masonry and brick structures, when subjected to fire can be weakened by deterioration of the mortar, expansion of the wall or damage to supporting or connected structural members. Visible signs of weakness include cracking, leaning or bowing or collapse of floors or roof frames.


BEST RULE: IF IT LOOKS DANGEROUS IT PROBABLY IS SO DO NOT ENTER!!

18

One of the common methods of setting fire is Electrical Apparatus, what is this and what are some examples?

Appliances are left turned on in circumstances that will cause a fire.
Examples are:
- A bar heater turned to face a wall or item of furniture.
- An iron left on a flat surface.
- A pop-up toaster with the lever tied down, so that material left inside will ignite.
- A pan of fat or flammable liquid left on the stove; or a vat of fat in a fish and chip shop.

An electrical inspector should be able to trace the wires back through the circuit to confirm that it was on.

19

What are the three causes of non-intentional causes of fire? List examples for each one.

Carelessness, Faults and Nature

Carelessness:
- Misusing electricity.
- Children playing with matches, cigarette lighters and so on.
- Burning off paint.
- Vagrants lighting fires.
- Welding and other industrial processes.
- Leaving clothes near heating.
- Wrapping up live ashes in paper.
- Ironing.
- Setting off fireworks.
- Using or storing flammable materials.
- Burning rubbish.
- Using domestic or camp fires.
- Leaving a stove or heater on.
- Leaving fat unattended while cooking.
- Smoking.

Faults:
- Chimney and flues
- Heating systems
- Appliances
- Television left on standby mode
- Dust extractors
- Fans and Ventilation system
- Electrical wiring (shorting and arcing)
- Machinery
- Gas Pipes and fittings
- Broken Power lines

Nature:
- Chemical Reactions
- The sun's rays
- Lightning
- Static Electricity
- Rodents eating through wiring or building nests out of flammable material
- Spontaneous combustion and ignition of, for example, damp grain, hay or wool, cloth soaked in oil, turpentine or paint, fine dust in joinery factories or flour mills.

20

Initial Action when dealing with fires not involving explosives....





Practical Question (Pg 25 - Not Module)

1. Briefly interview your informant
2. Secure and Control the scene
3. Initial Interview of the:
- Specialist Fire Investigation, if present
- O/C of the first fire appliance to attend the scene.
4. Interview of the incident controller at the scene and find out:
- the time and date of the the call and the manner in which it was recieved
- what appliances attended
- the state of the Fire when the Fire Service arrived
- what action the Service has taken, particularly in entering the building and ventilating it after the fire
- what information the Fire Service has about the building's security
- what alterations they have made to the scene, for example, they may have had to force doors or windows.
- Whether they think the fire is suspicious
- Their opinions of the informant (for example, a person who regularly attends or reports fires may have lit them)
- Details of people or vehicles acting suspiciously in the vicinity.
5. If the fire is extinguished, ensure safety of the scene before an initial conference is held with the Specialist Fire Investigator, Police and conduct a preliminary examination of the scene.
6. If deemed suspicious the re-group and hold a briefing conference
7. Confer with other staff and determine a plan of action. Brief and deploy them to:
- Guard and control the scene
- Identify and interview witnesses at the scene
- Conduct local enquiries
8. Contact communication ad supply a SITREP. Ask for assistance if necessary and the attendance of specialist such as Fire Investigation Liaison Officer, Police Photographer and fingerprint technicians.

21

When you interview the incident controller at the scene what should you find out?

- The time and date of the the call and the manner in which it was recieved
- What appliances attended
- The state of the Fire when the Fire Service arrived
- What action the Service has take, particularly in entering the building and ventilating it after the fire
- What information the Fire Service has about the building's security
- What alterations they have made to the scene, for example, they may have had to force doors or windows.
- Whether they think the fire is suspicious
- Their opinions of the informant (for example, a person who regularly attends or reports fires may have lit them

22

Interviewing witnesses at the scene. Name witnesses that can be interviewed......

- The person(s) who found the fire, raised the alarm and informed Police or Fire fighters
- Occupants and their visitors
- Employees including cleaners and casual staff
- Owners
- Neighbours
- Spectators
- Passers-by
- Local Police
- Patrols
- Other Police and security staff
- Vendors and delivery people
- Reporters and photographers

Ask about suspects and/or other people's movements and people who have left the scene. Also consider sourcing media footage to indentify persons at the scene.

23

Where it is difficult to preserve the scene the investigator must record the scene by:

- Sketches
- Photographs
- Plans
- Video Recordings

This will assist in recalling the layout of the premises prior to demolition work being carried out.

24

A specialist fire investigator should be present at all fire scenes Police are required to attend. You may also need the assistance of.....

- Fire Investigation Liaison Officer
- ESR Scientist
- Rural Fire Investigator
- Photographer
- Fingerprint officer
- Explosives inspector
- Electrical inspector
- Building inspector
- Insurance assessor
- Accountant
- Forensic Mapper/original floor plans
- Pathologist
- Vehicle inspector
- Civil Aviation Inspector
- Mines Inspector
- Forestry expert
- Agricultural Expert
- Marine Surveyor
- Heating engineer
- Meteorologist.

And one of the above may be required at your scene conference.

The O/C Investigation should then:
- Appoint an exhibits officer
- Appoint a crime scene co-ordination (if required)
- Advise the Fire Investigator Liaison Officer
- Appoint a Scene Guard

25

What does the External Examination take into account?



Short answer - Pg 32/33 (not module)

-Adjoining premises which often reveal:
*Accelerant container
*Attempts at forced entry
*Broken windows
*Forced doors
-Nearby alleyways/streets/driveways
-The yards and out buildings of the fire effected property
-The periphery of the structure itself
-What distance debris was scattered, particularly if drums or cylinders have exploded.

The surrounding area of the involved premises may also reveal:
-Accelerant containers
-Contents of outbuildings missing
-Property run down
-Business appears to be struggling

The damaged structure itself may reveal:
-jemmy marks or other signs of forced entry on windows or doors
-window glass broken before the fire was ignited
-Burn patterns above doors and windows and 'V' shaped burn patterns on external cladding.

26

What is a preliminary internal examination?

What things should you look for?


Short Answer (Pg 33 - Not Module)

It should involve a slow walk through the premises, from the area of least damage to that of most damage, taking notes of indicators such as:
- low stock levels in commercial premises
- building areas in need of repair
- signs of hardship (empty flats, shops to let etc)
- missing family photographs, furniture and personal items.
- Lack of clothing in wardrobes
- riled premises
- positions f clothes if not in wardrobes and drawers
- open filing cabinet or missing files
- Forced entry into an empty till
- presence of accelerant containers or trails
- seperate unrelated seats of fire
- owner/occupier attitude during walk through (if access permitted)
- unusual odours
- burn patterns.

(SMALLPUB)

27

What is a detailed internal examination? What will they take not of?




Practical Question Pg 34

You will accompany the Specialist Fire Investigator while they complete a detailed examination of the scene.

In this examination they will observe, note and take into account a number of observations including:
-Smoke depositis ad Bron patterns
-Spalling (the cracking or hopping of concrete as a result of being heated and cooled.
- Damage to wall studs
- Damage to roofing timbers
- Damage to window sills and door edges
- Soot deposits on window glass and craze patterns
- Floor areas burned through
- Skirting board damaged
- Elimination of false low burns
- Removal of fire debris, and
- Under floor inspection.

28

Things to look for in relation to the cause of the fire: (10 things)




Practical Question - Pg 35

*The evidence of accelerants, such as:
- containers
- traces in debris
- smell
- unusually rapid spread or intensity of fire
- uneven burning
- burning under or behind boards where the liquid has run through the cracks
- multiple seats of fire

*Evidence of intentional interference such as:
- tampering with alarm or sprinkler system
- hindering access
- misdirecting firefighters

*Evidence of intentional removal of valuable property of substitution of property.

*Signs that furniture was rearranged to create fire base
*Signs that windows and skylights were opened to create a draught
*Foreign material and objects such as screws/batteries, that might be part of a device.
*Signs that a crime had been committed. Even when the property may have been burnt to the ground, the state of recovered locks and fasteners may show whether it was secure at the time of the fire.
*Signs that a heater, soldering iron or other electrical appliance has been left on
*Inconsistencies (for example, that the fire is rapid burning but there is no obvious cause)
*Usual burn patterns or unusual time factors (for example that the fire started after the building was secured.)

29

What steps to follow when dealing with exhibits?





Short Answer (Pg 32 - Not Module)





Pg 36 (Not module)

1. Photograph in situ, label the exhibits, and preserve them in containers.
2. Use approved arson kits if these are available; if not use any suitable containers such as unused four litre paint tins.
3.Take these control samples:
- charred timber and ashes or debris from the seat of the fire for examination and comparison with sampled from other points.
- any accelerants found near the scene
- soil from the surrounding area.

30

When conducting a preliminary interview of the owner, what should you specifically find out:




Short Answer - Pg 37(not module)

- When the premises were last secured and by whom
- Whether he or she knows the cause of the fire
- The details of any suspects and any insurance
- Type of business
- Actions leading up to the fire.

Note the demeanour of the owner during the preliminary interview.

31

Conferences must be held during the scene examination to assist you with:




(Short Answer) (Pg 38 - Not Module)

- Assessing information obtained
- Reconstructing
- Established possible motives
- Identifying suspects
- Planning further enquiries.

You should then....appoint a crimes scene co-ordination (if required, exhibits officer, scribe, scene examiner and advise the fire investigation co-ordinator.

32

Suspect Enquiries in respect of fires not involving explosives
Step 1 to 5.



Pg 44 (not module)

1. You may identify the suspects by means of:
-The circumstances of the fire
-Fingerprints
-Information from informants and witnesses
-Media response
-Police resources such as Intelligence and Youth Services Sections or the Fire Investigation Liaison Officer
-Enquiries at prisons, psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centres and schools
-Information from fire crews on people who regularly attend fires.

2. Possible suspects may include:
-The owner or occupier for insurance fraud
-An employee to cover theft, forgery or false pretences
-A criminal, to cover the traces of a crime such as burglary or homicide or to intimidate other victims of a protection racket.
-An aggrieved person suffering from jealousy,hatred, rage, prejudice or a desire for revenge.
-A pyromaniac suffering from mental illness
-Incase of school buildings, a pupil or ex-pupil
-A member of the Fire Service, for excitement or personal recognition
-A business competitor, to disadvantage a rival.

3. Investigate suspects throughly and according to priority. Obtain their:
-full particulars
-criminal histories
-details of any motor vehicle to which they may have access
-details of any associates
-photographs.

4. Consider surveillance.

5. Complete enquiries to establish the suspect's:
-Opportunity
-Motive
-Mens Rea (Guilty mind)
-Connection with the scene and the crime
-Character, mental background, history, movements and behaviour.

33

Suspect Enquiries in respect of fires not involving explosives.
Step 6 to 12




Pg 45 (Not module)

6. Consider a search warrant. When executing the warrant:
-Search the suspects clothing, residence, motor vehicle and work-place, and in any other place where evidence may be found. Evidence could include:
*Acclerants
*Containers
*Igniters
*Wick fabric
*Traces of debris from the scene
-Photograph evidence in situ before it is seized(take care not to destroy fingerprints)
-Ask for and note the suspects explanation regarding the evidence. Be alert for the signs that the suspect has been at the scene for example burnt facial hair, the smell of smoke, the residue of fuel or the products of combustion on the skin.
-Issue a Police 268 form for any property seized
-Ensure all exhibits seized are labelled examined and uplifted by the exhibits officer.

7.Interview the suspect.

8. Consider an identification parade or montage.

9. Complete enquiries to corroborate or negate the suspect's explanation.

10. Advise your supervisor. Consider whether the ingredients of the offence, and a Prima facie case have been established. Obtain authority to prosecute.

11. Arrest the suspect and obtain:
-Fingerprints
-Photographs
-Consider medical examination for injuries
-Offender report details
-Consider getting the suspect to do a reconstruction if cooperative

12. Complete the correspondence by preparing the prosecution file and issuing the offender report. Cancel computer references for wanted persons and recovered property and forward noting to the Fire Investigation Liaison Officer.

34

Fires involving Explosives Initial Action




Pg 51 (Not Module) Short Answer

1. Remember that there may be a secondary device anywhere at the scene, including in a nearby building or vehicle. Do not handle or interfere with anything unfamiliar.

2. Do not use cell phones, portable radios or other transmitting devices.

3. Evacuate the scene to a distance of at least 100m. Ensure that people leaving the scene bring their personal possessions with them. This will limit the number of items to be cleared. Consider using an explosives detector dog to locate the device.

4. If the IED is located, immediately obtain the assistance of an IED operator from the Department of Labour. If no department of Labour operations are available, consider utilising a Defence Force Expert. Bear in mind that Defence Force expertise of Armed Service operators relates primarily to military ordnance.

5. Give regular SITREPs to Police Comms.

35

Electric Detonators, List some examples that you may find.



Pg 54 (not module)

- lead wire, which may help identify the type of detonator used, the remaining wire is often referred to as 'fly wire'
- The neoprene plug
- The short-circuiting shunt - a small piece of plastic that is removed from the wires before they are connected into the circuit
- the 'delay setting' tag from the lead wire
- fragments of the electric detonator casing (although highly unlikely)

36

Names some means of Identifying a suspect



Pg 44 (not module)

1. You may identify the suspects by means of:
-The circumstances of the fire
-Fingerprints
-Information from informants and witnesses
-Media response
-Police resources such as Intelligence and Youth Services Sections or the Fire Investigation Liaison Officer
-Enquiries at prisons, psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centres and schools
-Information from fire crews on people who regularly attend fires.

37

List some possible suspects....

-The owner or occupier for insurance fraud
-An employee to cover theft, forgery or false pretences
-A criminal, to cover the traces of a crime such as burglary or homicide or to intimidate other victims of a protection racket.
-An aggrieved person suffering from jealousy,hatred, rage, prejudice or a desire for revenge.
-A pyromaniac suffering from mental illness
-Incase of school buildings, a pupil or ex-pupil
-A member of the Fire Service, for excitement or personal recognition
-A business competitor, to disadvantage a rival

38

What is the definition of Benefit?





(Short Answer)(Pg 17 - Module)

Section 267(4) Crimes Act 1961 - In this section and in section 269, benefit means any benefit, pecuniary advantage, privilege, property, service or valuable consideration.

39

Define 'Obtain'.




(Pg 17 - Module)

Section 217 - Crimes Act 1961
Obtain in relation to any person, means to obtain or retain for himself, herself or any other person

40

What can the NZFS Fire Safety Officer or specialist fire investigator be able to determine at the conclusion of their internal examination?

- Area of origin
- Point of origin
- The seat of the fire

41

How can you tell the difference between a gas explosion and other explosions?




Short Answer (Pg 54 - Not Module)

Gas explosions generally cover a wider area and they do not leave a crater. Lighter-than-air gases such as hydrogen will create an outward blow at the top of a wall, whereas heavier-than-air gases blow out at the bottom of a wall. There a number of other tell tale signs, including the implosion of cabinets, which will be obvious to the expert.

42

When interviewing witnesses and the scene, ask them??





Short Answer (Pg 37 - Not Module)

- Suspects
- Other peoples movements
- People who have left the scene.
- Also consider sourcing media footage to identify persons at the scene.

43

What to look for at an explosive fire. Characteristic damage caused by explosives includes;





Short Answer (Pg 54 - Not Module)

- Catering
- Spread of debris
- Shredding of materials
- A smell peculiar to the exploded material; for example, the smell f almonds is often associated with explosive or exploded material
- An overlay of dust
- Shrapnel marks.

44

Guarding or controlling the scene - Police guarding the scene must:




Short Answer (Pg 27 - Not Module)

Scene security considerations for Police are:
- Ensuring the scene is not interfered with
- Exclusion and control of on-lookers, property owners and other interested parties
- Preserving evidence
- Prevent looting.

Attending Police, should also:
- Be aware of re-ignition from hot spots after the fire is extinguished
- Be vigilant and watch for possible suspects
- Identify any witnesses among on lookers and passers-by
- Report all matters of significance to the O/C investigation and/or scene co-ordination.

45

Identifying the explosive....
Because modern explosive residues are often slight and dissipate rapidly, the O/C scene may need to authorise the expert to enter the centre of the scene before it has been fully examined. In this case;



Short Answer (Pg 52 - Not Module)

- Create a path to the centre of the explosion, by laying a clean unused roll of plastic or by using the approved stepping plates (this may involve some exhibits being trampled under foot)

- Have the ESR analyst start swabbing the area immediately (work outwards from the seat of the explosion)

- Vertical sheets of iron adjacent to the blast such as street signs and fencing are often good sources of residue.

Ensure the items used (including tools and so on) are all carefully cleaned before use. Discuss the avoidance of cross contamination with ESR analyst.

46

Clothing protection - what items are required?





Multi choice (Pg 14 Not Module)

- A suitable helmet (that complies with the safety standard)
- A pair of overalls
- Nose and mouth filter, a full face respirator or full BA (if required and qualified)
- Gloves
- Safety Glasses
- Heavy duty footwear with steel soles and toe caps