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Flashcards in Gas Exchange And Respiration Deck (17):
1

What is respiration?

A series of oxidation reactions taking place in all living cell. It results in the release of energy from organic compounds such as glucose.

2

What is gas exchange?

The diffusion of gases into and out of cells in order that respiration can take place.

3

What are the features of a gas exchange surface?

Large surface area- so diffusion can take place more effectively

Thin - short diffusion pathway

Moist - so gases can dissolve before they diffuse

Can maintain a high concentration gradient- quicker diffusion

4

How does gas exchange take place in insects?

They have a system of tracheal tubes that supply the tissue with air.

5

What do tracheal tubes branch into?

Tracheoles

6

What are spiritless?

Opening on the side of insects that can open and close to prevent water loss and allow are to be transported by tracheal tubes that they open into.

7

Why do the end of the tracheoles have a small amount of water at the end?

So that gases can diffuse before they dissolve.

8

How do worms preform gas exchange?

Their gas exchange surface is their skin like surface, which allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse in and out.

9

What effects the rate of diffusion?

Temperature
Surface area
Length of the diffusion pathway
Concentration gradient
Size of molecules

10

Why is water harder to use as a gas exchange medium?

Lower oxygen content percentage
Low oxygen diffusion rate
High density
High viscosity

11

How many pair of gills are there in the pharynx?

4

12

What is each gill supported by?

Bony gill arch

13

What is the significance of the water flowing over gills in the opposite direction to the blood?

This is counter current flows and means that equilibrium is never reached.

14

What is the process of inspiration? (Fish)

Open mouth - muscles contract lowers the floor of the buccal cavity
This increases volume and decreases pressure in the buffalo cavity
Water flows into the buccal cavity
Close month
Floor of buccal cavity raised
This decreases volume and increases pressure
Opercular cavity expands - increase in volume decrease in pressure - pressure gradient
WATER IS FORCED OVER THE GILLS

15

What is the process of expiration?
(Fish)

The operculum cavity “contracts”
This decreases volume and increases pressure
Operculum opens and water is forced out

16

What is the process of inspiration 💁🏼‍♀️?

External intercostal muscles contracts
Rib cage upwards and outwards
The internal intercostal muscles are relaxed
The diaphragm flattens by contracting
The volume increases in the lungs and the pressure decreases
Causing a pressure gradient and causing air to flow into the lungs

17

What is the process of expiration?

The internal intercostal muscles contract and the external intercostal muscles relax
This moves the ribs downwards and inwards
The diaphragm relaxes and curves
This decreases volume and increases pressure
Air is forced out as the elastic tissue of the alveoli recoils