Gastric Emptying Digestion And Absorption Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gastric Emptying Digestion And Absorption Deck (35):
0

Gastric emptying is influenced by?

The volume of food energy density, osmolarity, dehydration, psychologicalstress and anxiety, and to a lesser degree by exercise intensity, meal temperature and gender.

1

In the stomach

In the stomach, food is mixed with gastric secretions (hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes)

2

Chewing food does what?

Chewing food makes the food particles smaller and increases the surface area of the food. This increases the contact area for the digestive enzymes. Chewing also makes is the food particles with saliva and digestive enzymes.

3

The primary function of the gastrointestinal.

It's a 6 to 8 m long tubular structure that reaches from the mouth to the anus, is to provide the body with nutrients.

4

What are pancreatic juices and bile for?

Pancreatic it juices and bile are added to the chyme in the duodenum to digest the carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Specialized in zymes split these micronutrients into the smallest subunits for absorption. Bile is added to emulsify lipid droplets and facilitate digestion and absorption.

5

Where does 90% to 95% of all absorption take place?

About 90% to 95% of all absorption takes place in the duodenum and jejunum (first parts of the small intestine nine).

6

What is the large intestine for?

The large intestine nine is a storage place for Undigested food residues and the final water and electrolyte absorption occurs there.

7

Gastro Neil problems and incidents are increased by?

Gastrointestinal problems are a common phenomenon, mainly among endurance athletes, and the incidence is increased by physiological factors, mechanical factors, and nutrition.

8

Salivary glands

Release enzymes and protect against oral bacteria

9

Secretin

Stimulates bicarbonate secretion in pancreatica juice

10

Esophageal sphincter

Dysfunction can cause heartburn

11

Large intestine

Store species until they can be expelled

12

Motility

Refers to the movement of food in the G.I. tract

13

Probiotics

Beneficial bacteria that can be found in yogurt

14

Liver

Processes nutrients that are sent from the intestines

15

Active transport

Mode of absorption

16

Gallbladder

Stores bile

17

Villi

Finger-like projections in the small intestine nine

18

The G.I. tract is a ______ long tubular structure that reaches from the mouth to the anus

6-8m

19

List the three primary digestive functions of the stomach

1) Stores large quantities of food and tell it can be accommodated into the intestine.
2) Mixes food with gastric secretions and hydrochloride HCI acid to break down proteins and form a homogenous, acidic, soup like liquid or paste called chyme.
Regulates emptying of chyme into small intestine by action of the pyloric sphincter.

20

True or false?
The folds of Kirkmore, villi and microvilli in the large intestine nine all function to increase surface area for optimal absorption of nutrients.

False

21

Hormone: gastrin
secreted by:
effect:

Hormone: gastrin
secreted by: stomach
effect: stimulates HCI production, stimulates secretion of pepsinogen

22

Hormone: Gastric inhibitory peptide GIP
secreted by:
effect:

Hormone: Gastric inhibitory peptide GIP
secreted by: small intestine
effect: inhibit to gastric motility and secretion

23

Hormone: Glucagonlike per tide I (GLP-I)
secreted by:
effect:

Hormone: Glucagonlike per tide I (GLP-I)
secreted by: ileum and colon
effect: inhibits gastric motility and secretion

24

Hormone: secretin
secreted by:
effect:

Hormone: secretin
secreted by: small intestine
effect: stimulate water and bicarbonate secretion in pancreatic juice

25

Hormone: Cholecystokinin (CCK)
secreted by:
effect:

Hormone: Cholecystokinin (CCK)
secreted by: small intestine
effect: stimulates secretion of enzymes and inhibits gastric motility

26

Hormone: Guanylin
Secreted by:
Effect:

Hormone: Guanylin
Secreted by: ileum and colon
Effect: causes removal of NaCi and water from feces

27

Which of the following components of the G.I. tract secretes sodium bicarbonate to buffer the acidity of digested food released from the stomach?

A: liver
B: Pancreas
C: small intestine
D: gallbladder

B: Pancreas

28

Which of the following components of the G.I. tract provides for approximately 95% of all nutrient absorption?

A: stomach
B: liver
C: large intestine
D: small intestine

D: small intestine

29

Which of the following hormones is secreted in the stomach to stimulate hydrochloric HCI acid production for the breakdown of nutrients and elimination of bacteria?

A: secretin
B: Guanylin
C: gastrin
D: cholecystokinin (CCK)

C: gastrin

30

True or false?
Prolonged chewing of a single cracker causes it to taste sweeter because salivary enzymes break down starches and complex carbohydrates into simple sugars

True

31

List 3 effects that HCI acid house on protein in the stomach

A) activates the metabolic enzyme pepsin
B) deactivates hormones within the Protein
C) kills pathogenic organisms within the protein

32

_____ requires energy in the form of ATP to facilitate absorption of nutrients

Active transport

33

True or false?
Fatty acid's can enter circulation through the lymphatic system, the subclavian vein's and the hepatic portal vein to be transported to the liver.

True

34

True or false?
The large intestine contains about 1 kg of various bacteria, while the stomach and small intestine's have much lower quantities do to gastric acid.

True