Gastric, Intestinal, and Pancreatic Function (PART 2) Flashcards Preview

Chemistry Module 4 > Gastric, Intestinal, and Pancreatic Function (PART 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastric, Intestinal, and Pancreatic Function (PART 2) Deck (26):

Compare Chohn's and ulcerative colitis

Both: form of inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune etiology, genetic
Chron's: can affect any portion of intestine; 10-30% test positive for ANCA test
Colitis: disease of large intestine ONLY; 60-80% test positive for ANCA test


Cause of celiac disease

hypersensitivity to grains (gluten)
- genetics, immune system, environment


symptoms of celiac disease

- ab bloating and pain
- chronic constipation and/or diarrhea
- weight loss
- pale, foul-smelling stool
- Flatulence
(many more see slide 108)


treatment for celiac disease

remove gluten from diet


Best screening test for colon cancer

Occult Blood test


Carcinoid Syndrome
- symptoms

Tumors produce serotonin which cause the symptoms of hypertension flushing, wheezing, diarrhea, right-sided valvular disease, etc.


Carcinoid Syndrome
- lab diagnosis

Screen for 5-HIAA in urine


Carcinoid Syndrome
- treatment

Surgical excision of the tumor(s) is the only treatment


Endocrine functions of the pancreas

- Beta cells secrete insulin
- Alpha cells secrete Glucagon
- Delta cells secrete Gastrin and Somatostatin


Exocrine functions of the pancreas

80% of mass made of acinar cells, grape-like clusters of cells, that produce digestive enzymes


Physiological effects of insulin

Uptake of glucose


Physiological effects of glucagon

Release of glucose from glycogen


Physiological effects of gastrin

HCL production


Consequences of secretin and CCK-PZ release on the pancreas

Secretin: made when acidic stomach contents reach duodenum; responsible for bicarb release; inhibits gastrin production in stomach
CCK-PZ: made by intestinal mucosal cells; responsible for enzyme release from pancreatic acinar cells


Consequences of Vagus nerve stimulation on the pancreas

Can cause pancreatic fluid secretion during cephalic phase of digestion


Five enzymes produced by the pancreas and their substrates

1. Amylase: acts on starch and carbs
2. Lipase: acts on trigs
3. Chymotrypsin: cleave peptide bonds following phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues
4. Trypsin: acts on proteins (catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds)
5. Elastase -1: acts on elastin


Cystic Fibrosis
- cause

Autosomal recessive; most common genetic mutation is Delta F508 on long arm of chromosome 7


Cystic Fibrosis
- symptoms

disrupts the function of several organs by clogging tubes


Cystic Fibrosis
- clinical course

Meconium ileus at birth (bowel obstruction)
- Chronic respiratory infections
- Malabsorption with failure to thrive
- Median survival: 30 years


Cystic Fibrosis
- lab findings

Sweat Chloride Measurement >60 mEq/L on two occasions


Cancer of the head of the pancreas
- symptoms and lab findings

- detected earlier than other pancreatic cancer
- Jaundice, weight loss, anorexia, nausea


Cancer of the beta cell tumors
- symptoms and lab findings

Cuased very low blood sugars and associated symptoms


Cancer of the alpha cell tumors
- symptoms and lab findings

have a very poor prognosis; detected later because of lots of other diseases cause hyperglycemia


Acute Pancreatitis:
- common causes

- Cholelithiasis (gallstones)
- Excess alcohol intake
- Trauma, mumps, thrombosis, drugs
- Idiopathic


Acute Pancreatitis:
- common symptoms

Acute ab pain radiating to the upper back


Acute Pancreatitis:
- length of time that amylase and lipase remain elevated in the serum after an attack

- Rises within 24 hours, returns to normal in 3 or 4 days
- Lipase: Rises about the same time, stays elevated for 2 weeks