Gastric, Intestinal, and Pancreatic Function (PART 2) Flashcards Preview

Chemistry Module 4 > Gastric, Intestinal, and Pancreatic Function (PART 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastric, Intestinal, and Pancreatic Function (PART 2) Deck (26):
1

Compare Chohn's and ulcerative colitis

Both: form of inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune etiology, genetic
Chron's: can affect any portion of intestine; 10-30% test positive for ANCA test
Colitis: disease of large intestine ONLY; 60-80% test positive for ANCA test

2

Cause of celiac disease

hypersensitivity to grains (gluten)
- genetics, immune system, environment

3

symptoms of celiac disease

- ab bloating and pain
- chronic constipation and/or diarrhea
- weight loss
- pale, foul-smelling stool
- Flatulence
(many more see slide 108)

4

treatment for celiac disease

remove gluten from diet

5

Best screening test for colon cancer

Occult Blood test

6

Carcinoid Syndrome
- symptoms

Tumors produce serotonin which cause the symptoms of hypertension flushing, wheezing, diarrhea, right-sided valvular disease, etc.

7

Carcinoid Syndrome
- lab diagnosis

Screen for 5-HIAA in urine

8

Carcinoid Syndrome
- treatment

Surgical excision of the tumor(s) is the only treatment

9

Endocrine functions of the pancreas

- Beta cells secrete insulin
- Alpha cells secrete Glucagon
- Delta cells secrete Gastrin and Somatostatin

10

Exocrine functions of the pancreas

80% of mass made of acinar cells, grape-like clusters of cells, that produce digestive enzymes

11

Physiological effects of insulin

Uptake of glucose

12

Physiological effects of glucagon

Release of glucose from glycogen

13

Physiological effects of gastrin

HCL production

14

Consequences of secretin and CCK-PZ release on the pancreas

Secretin: made when acidic stomach contents reach duodenum; responsible for bicarb release; inhibits gastrin production in stomach
CCK-PZ: made by intestinal mucosal cells; responsible for enzyme release from pancreatic acinar cells

15

Consequences of Vagus nerve stimulation on the pancreas

Can cause pancreatic fluid secretion during cephalic phase of digestion

16

Five enzymes produced by the pancreas and their substrates

1. Amylase: acts on starch and carbs
2. Lipase: acts on trigs
3. Chymotrypsin: cleave peptide bonds following phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues
4. Trypsin: acts on proteins (catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds)
5. Elastase -1: acts on elastin

17

Cystic Fibrosis
- cause

Autosomal recessive; most common genetic mutation is Delta F508 on long arm of chromosome 7

18

Cystic Fibrosis
- symptoms

disrupts the function of several organs by clogging tubes

19

Cystic Fibrosis
- clinical course

Meconium ileus at birth (bowel obstruction)
- Chronic respiratory infections
- Malabsorption with failure to thrive
- Median survival: 30 years

20

Cystic Fibrosis
- lab findings

Sweat Chloride Measurement >60 mEq/L on two occasions

21

Cancer of the head of the pancreas
- symptoms and lab findings

- detected earlier than other pancreatic cancer
- Jaundice, weight loss, anorexia, nausea

22

Cancer of the beta cell tumors
- symptoms and lab findings

Cuased very low blood sugars and associated symptoms

23

Cancer of the alpha cell tumors
- symptoms and lab findings

have a very poor prognosis; detected later because of lots of other diseases cause hyperglycemia

24

Acute Pancreatitis:
- common causes

- Cholelithiasis (gallstones)
- Excess alcohol intake
- Trauma, mumps, thrombosis, drugs
- Idiopathic

25

Acute Pancreatitis:
- common symptoms

Acute ab pain radiating to the upper back

26

Acute Pancreatitis:
- length of time that amylase and lipase remain elevated in the serum after an attack

- Rises within 24 hours, returns to normal in 3 or 4 days
- Lipase: Rises about the same time, stays elevated for 2 weeks