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GastroIntestinal (GI) > Gastritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastritis Deck (28):
1

What is gastritis?

Inflammation of the stomach.

2

What are the folds of the stomach called?

The rugae

3

What can cause acute gastritis?

Irritant chemical injury
Severe burns
Shocks
Severe trauma
Injury

This is erosive and can lead to blood loss.

4

What can cause chronic gastritis?

Autoimmune gastritis
Bacterial gastritis
Chemical gastritis

5

What causes Autoimmune gastritis?

Production of anti-parietal and anti-intrsinci factor antibodies
(Parietal cells are that produce acid)
(Intrinsic cells produce intrinsic factor)
Pernicious anaemia
Macrocytosis - due to B 12 deficiency

6

What is pernicious anaemia?

Anaemia caused by gastritis

7

What is macrocytosis?

This is enlargement of the red blood cells through deficiency of B 12

8

Where does H pylori inhabit?

Inhabits a niche between the epithelial cell surface and mucous barrier
- This causes an acute inflammatory response

9

What type of bacteria is H Pylori?

Gram Negative curvillinear rod (Look like stick birds)

10

What does H pylori increase the risk of?

Duodenal ulcer
Gastric ulcer
Gastric carcinoma
Gastric lymphoma

11

What is the test for H pylori?

Stool antigen test.
C 13 antigen test
Gastric biopsy
Serology of IgA antibodies (not accurate with increasing patient age)

12

What are the causes of chemical gastritis?

NSAIDs
Bile reflux
Alcohol

13

What is the pathology of chemical gastritis?

Marked epithelial regeneration
Leads to Hyperplasia

- This may produce ulcers

14

What disease is related to gastritis?

Peptic ulcer disease

15

What is peptic ulceration?

A breach in the GI mucosa as a result of acid and pepsin attack

16

What are the most common place to get a peptic ulcer?

Duodenum

17

What are the complications of a peptic ulcer?

Perforation
Penetration
Haemorrhage
Stenosis
Intractable pain

18

What are the benign gastric tumours?

Hyperplastic polyps
Cystic fundic gland polyps

19

What are malignant gastric tumours?

Carcinomas
Lymphomas
GI stromal tumours

20

What increases the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas?

H Pylori infection
Patients with anti-h pylori antibodies have a higher risk of cancer

21

What is the pathology of gastric adenocarcimoma?

H pylori infection
Chronic gastritis
Intestinal metaplasia
Dysplasia
Carcinoma

22

What are the premalignant conditions to gastric cancer?

Pernicious anaemia
Partial gastrectomy
Lynch syndrome
Meneterier's disease

23

What is the feature of gastric cancer ?

Thickening of the stomach wall
Called Linitis plastica

24

How is gastric lymphoma intially treated?

Treated with antibiotics - to remove H pylori.

If Gastric lymphoma is let it will become a high grad B cell lymphoma

25

How is H pylori spread?

Oral-oral / faecal oral spred

26

What is the consequence of duodenal acid load?

Gastric metaplasia
H pylori colonisation
Ulceration

27

How does H pylori increase the pH of it microenvionment?

Urea + H2O + H+ --- Urease--> Ammonium Bicarbonate

H pylori reduces this process

28

What is the treatment for Peptic ulcer disease?

PPI
Surgery
Withdraw NSAIDs