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Flashcards in Gastro Intestinal Tract Deck (109):
1

Name the four ANTERIOR abdominal wall muscles

External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Transversus Abdominus
Rectus abdominus
** some people have pyramidalis

2

Which muscle has the inguinal ligament

External oblique

3

Name the four POSTERIOR abdominal wall muscles

Psoas major
psoas minor
ileacus
quadratus lumborum

4

What three layers do the testes take with them when they move from the posterior abdominal wall?

Aponeurosis of external oblique
Fascia Transversalis
Transversalis abdominus
aaand blood vessels, nerves and duct system

5

What is the difference between the superficial ring and the deep inguinal ring

Superficial ring --> external, triangular slit between EO aponeurosis
Deep --> internal, hole in transversalis fascia

6

What is a Inguinal Hernia?

Protrusion of abdominal contents into the inguinal canal

7

What are the two types of inguinal hernias and what are there differences

Indirect --> most common, through deep ring, may go through entire canal through into scrotum
Direct--> less common, protrusion through post. abdominal wall of inguinal canal and does NOT pass the entire way through. Rarely to scrotum

8

Intraperiotneal

Suspended in peritoneal cavity
Completely surrounded by peritoneal
Mobile --> mesentry

9

Retroperitoneal

Outside peritoneal cavity
PARTIALLY surrounded by peritoneal
No mesentry
Not mobile

10

Problem with intraperitoneal viscera

Can potentially cut off blood/nerve supply if mesentry is twisted
Infection can easily spread

11

Spleen: intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?

Intraperitoneal

12

Upper rectum: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

retroperitoneal

13

Cecum: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

sometimes peritoneal, sometimes retroperitoneal

14

Liver and gallbladder: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

intraperitoneal

15

Pancreas: intraperitoneal or retro>

Secondary Retro

16

Ileum: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Major intraperitoneal

17

Jejunum: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Peritoneal

18

Adrenal gland: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Primary retroperitoneal

19

Kidney: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Primary retroperitoneal

20

Stomach: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Peritoneal

21

Sigmoid colon: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Peritoneal (aka intraperitoneal)

22

Descending colon: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Secondary Retroperitoneal

23

Transverse colon: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Peritoneal (aka intraperitoneal)

24

Ascending colon: peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

Secondary Retroperitoneal

25

4th part of duodenum: peritoneal or retroperitoneal

Secondary retroperitoneal

26

List the unpaired branches of the aorta and where they originate from in regards to the spine

Coeliac - T12
Superior Mesenteric - L1
Inferior - L3

27

The paired branches off the aorta and their origin

Suprarenal - L1
Renal - B/w L1 & L2
Pairatal
Gonadal - L2

28

What are the three constrictions of the oesophagus and what type of constrictions are they

Cervical --> anatomical --> beginning
Diaphragmatic --> functional --> end
Thoracic --> due to impressions from aorta and left bronchus --> T4 - T5

29

What are the two types of muscles that make up the oesophagus and where are they located in relation to each other

External long muscles --> outside of tube
Internal circular muscles --> inside of tube

30

Where does the oesophagus begin

C6

31

Where does the oesophagus enter the stomach?

Right hand side of stomach and around T10

32

What quadrant is the stomach located in

LUQ

33

Stomach: intra or retroperitoneal

Intra

34

Function: Stomach

Store food
Beginning digestion

35

Stomach: Surfaces

Anterior
Posterior

36

Stomach: Orifices, Location of Orifices and Type

Cardia -> b/w oesophagus and body of stomach
Pyloric --> b/w duo and pyloric canal

37

Stomach: Curvatures

Lesser
Greater

38

Stomach: Regions

Fundus
Body
Pyloric --> antrum and canal
Cardia

39

In which region of the stomach is air usually found

Fundus

40

What are the three regions of the SMALL intestine

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

41

What are the 5 regions of the LARGE intestine

Caecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon

42

Which quad is the Duodenum found in

RUQ

43

What are the four parts of the duodenum

Superior
Descending
Inferior
Ascending

44

Which region of the duodenu has papilla

Descending

45

What is the major duodenal papilla

common bile duct and the pancreatic duct together perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum obliquel

46

What is the minor duodenal papilla

the opening of the accessory pancreatic duct into the descending second section of the duodenum

47

What are the differences between Jejunum and Ileum

Jejunum -> LUQ, Larger, more folds, thicker walled, greater vascularity and less mesenteric fat
Ileum, RLQ -> less of everything except MORE fat

48

What is the mesentry of the ileum and jejunum called

The Mesentry

49

What are the features of the LARGE intestine

Large
Tenia Coli
Hausta
Omental appendices
Has inner circular muscle NO outer longitudinal --> splits to creat tenia coli

50

Define: Tenia Coli

three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons.

51

Define Haustra

small pouches in the large intestine that have a segmented appearance; they are formed from longitudinal muscle fibers.

52

Define Omental Appendices

Fatty Tags

53

Where are tendernis intersections found and what are their role

Found between rectus abdominis muscles
Increase power of contraction

54

Where is the inguinal ligament found

On the floor of the canal

55

Difference between primary and secondary retroperitoneal

Primary --> viscera that has NEVER had mesentry before
Secondary --> viscera that once has mesentry during development, now does not

56

Primary retroperitoneal viscera include

Abdominal aorta
IVC
Kidneys
Uterus
Adrenal glands

57

Secondary retroperitoneal viscera include

Duodenum
Pancreas
Asc colon
Desc colon

58

Location: Liver

RUQ

59

Location: Gall Bladder

RUQ

60

Location: Pancrease

LUQ

61

Location: Spleen

LUQ

62

Location: Oesophagus

Majority = thorax --> Starts at C6 ends at T10

63

Location: Stomach

LUQ

64

Largest viscera of the body

Liver

65

Two surfaces of the liver and their differences

Visceral and diaphragmatic
Visc --> smooth, found ant and inferior
Diaphragmatic ->concaved, found posterior and superior

66

What is the ligament that seperate the right and left lobe of the liver

Falciform ligament

67

Which lobe of the liver is larger

Right

68

What is found in the hilum of the liver

Portal Triad -> portal vein
Hepatic artery and hepatic duct

69

What are the two accessory lobes of the liver and on which major lobe are they found

Caudrate lob and Quadrate lobe
Both found on Right Lobe separated by Hilum
Caudate --> post
Quad --> anterior

70

Function: Gall bladder

Stores and concentrates bile

71

What is the name of the duct between the neck of the gall bladder and the hepatic duct

Cystic duct

72

What are the three regions of the gall bladder

Neck, body and fundus

73

Function: Spleen

Filter blood
Fight bacteria

74

Where is the spleen located in regards to ribs?

Ribs 9, 10, 11 and 12

75

Function: Pancreas

Endocrine --> blood
Exocrine --> into duodenum via main duct and accessory

76

What are the four parts of the pancreas and where are they located

Head --> surrounded by duodenum
Neck
Body
Tail --> related to the spleen

77

In terms of venous drainage, where do paired viscera drain into?

Directly into IVC

78

In terms of venous drainage, what do unpaired viscera drain into?

Hepatic veins --> liver --> IVC

79

What artery supplies the gonads

Gonadal

80

What artery supplies the adrenal glands

Suprarenal

81

What artery supplies abdo walls

Pairatal

82

What artery supplies lower limbs and pelvis

Common ileac

83

What artery supplies kidneys

Renal

84

What does the coelic trunk supply

Oesophagus --> Major duodenum papilla
FOREGUT derivitives

85

What does the superior mesenteric artery supply

Midgut derivitives
Last 3rd of duo --> 2.3 of transverse colon

86

What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply

Hind gut derivitives
Last 1/3 of transverse cole --> rectum

87

Where do the unpaired branches of the aorta come off the aorta from?

From the front

88

Where do paired branches of the aorta come of the abdo aorta from?

The sides

89

Which side does the aorta lie in relation to IVC

Left

90

Attachments: External Oblique

5th-12th rib
Ileac spine to isis
Linear alba
Pubic tubercle

91

Attachments: internal oblique

Inguinal lig & pubic crest via conjoint tendon

92

Attachments: transversus abdominus

Lateral inguinal lig & pubic crest via conjoint tendon

93

Attachments: Rectus abdomins

Pubic symphysis and crest
Xyphroid process and costal cartridges

94

Attachments: Psoas Major

T12 - L5
Transverse process lumbar

95

Attachments: Psoas Minor

T12 - L1
Pectineal line

96

Attachments: Quadratus Lumbar

12th ribs and lumbar process
Ileac crest

97

Function: External Oblique

Compress and support abdominal viscera
Flax and rotate trunk

98

Function: Internal Oblique

Compress and support abdominal viscera
Flax and rotate trunk

99

Function: Transvers abdominus

Compress and support abdo viscera

100

Function: Rectus abdominus

Flexes trunk and compresses viscera

101

Function: psoas major

flexion and external rotation of the hip joint

102

Function: psoas minor

Acts with major - flex and rotate thigh

103

Function: Quadratus lumbar

Extends and lateraly flexes vertebral column

104

Anterior abdominal wall muscles are innervated by what nerves?

T7 - L1

105

Posterior abdominal wall muscles are innervated by what nerves?

L1 - L4

106

Organs found in RUQ

Liver
Right Kidney
Gall Bladder (under liver)
Duodenum
Pancreas
Part of transverse colon

107

Organs found in LUQ

Stomach
Left kidney
Spleen
Part of transverse colon
Pancreas

108

Organs founds RLQ

Caecum
Ascending Colon
Ileum
Appendix

109

Organs found LLQ

Jejunum
Sigmoid Colon
Rectum
Anus