Gastrointestinal/Immune/Musculoskeletal Phys. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal/Immune/Musculoskeletal Phys. Deck (50):
0

What is the name of the enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in the mouth during mastication?

Salivary amylase (into maltose)

1

What are the 3 types of cells in the stomach?

Mucosal (neck) cells, chief cells, parietal cells

2

Neck cells secrete what?

Mucus and gastrin

3

Parietal cells secrete what?

Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic facts
-HCl is needed for the activation of pepsinogen

4

Chief cells produce what? And what happens to it in the presence of HCl?

Pepsinogen, w/ HCl its activated into pepsin (which is needed for protein digestion)

5

What does bicarbonate do in the small intestine?

Neutralizes gastric acid and makes the pH alkaline

6

The presence of fat in the duodenum stimulates the release of ______?

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

7

What does CCK do once released?

Causes the gallbladder to contract and relaxes the sphincter of Oddi (allowing bile to be excreted into the duodenum)

8

This enzyme completes digestion/breakdown of starch (carbs.) in the small intestine?

Pancreatic amylase; into maltose

9

The large intestine mostly absorbs what?

Water

10

Bacteria found in the large intestine produces ________?

Vitamin K

11

Water soluble vitamins enter the enterocytes by?

Secondary active transport mechanisms

12

How is Vitamin B12 absorbed in the body?

By attaching to Intrinsic Factor secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach, which is delivered to the terminal ileum, then gets bound to Cubilin and transported into enteroctyes (I know this answer is way to long)

13

What is stored in the liver?

Glycogen, Vitamins A, D and B12

14

What is a byproduct of RBC breakdown in the spleen?

Bilirubin

15

What are the contents of bile?

Water, bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol and bilirubin

16

What is secretin and what does it do?

-From the S cells in the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn
-Stimulates the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas

17

Grehlin does what related to hunger?

Increases the feeling of hunger

18

All blood cells come from what kind of cells?

Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells

19

Lymphoid cell lines give rise to what cells?

B cells (from bone marrown) and T cells (from thymus)

20

Myeloid cell lines give rise to what cell types?

Erythroblasts, granulocytes (turn into basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes

21

What are the types of WBC's and the percentage they make up?

Neutrophils (60%)
Lymphocytes (30%)
Monocytes (8%)
Eosinophils (2%)
Basophils (<1%) Never Let My Engine Blow

22

What is phagocytosis?

Process by which WBC's ingest offending agents in the tissue

23

What are the main WBC's involved in phagocytosis?

Neutrophils and macrophages (monocytes that have migrated)

24

What blood type is the universal donor?

Type O

25

What type of blood is the universal recipient?

Type AB

26

In relation to Immunity what does Opsonization do?

Makes target cells more susceptible to phagocytosis

27

What type of cells make most antibodies?

lymphocytes

28

What tissues will tolerate antigens without eliciting an inflammatory response? (called "Immunologically privileged")

Brain
eyes
testis and....
the Fetus

29

B lymphocytes are also called _______ and make antibodies in the form of _________?

Plasma cells, immunoglobulins (for humoral immunity)

30

T lymphocytes are involved in what type of immunity?

cell-mediated immunity (no antibodies)

31

T lymphocytes constitute ___% of circulating lymphocytes?

95%

32

CD8 T cells differentiate into what kind of cells?

Cytotoxic (killer) T cells

33

CD4 T cells differentiate into what kind of cells?

Helper T cells

34

What is the most abundant antibody in circulation and what does it do?

IgG- Promotes phagocytosis and cell lysis

35

What is the most abundantly produced antibody and what does it do?

IgA- Present in saliva, tears and breast milk

36

What antibody is important in parasitic infections and some allergic responses?

IgE

37

What is the largest antibody?

IgM

38

What is the functional unit of a muscle?

Sarcomere

39

The thick filaments of a muscle contain ________, while the thin filaments contain ______ (3 things)?

Thick- Myosin
Thin- Actin, Troponin, Tropomyosin

40

What is the calcium-binding protein in skeletal and cardiac muscle?

Troponin

41

What determines if a muscle is slow or fast twitch?

The speed at which the sarcoplasmic reticulum pumps the Ca++ back in using the Calcium ATPase mechanism during relaxation of a muscle.

42

What is an isometric contraction?

muscle fibers do not change length

43

What is an isotonic contraction?

Load remains the same (ex. keeping elbow flexed with a weight in hand)

44

What is an isokinetic contraction?

Speed of contraction remains the same throughout

45

What is a concentric contraction?

Muscle shortens during contraction

46

What is an eccentric contraction?

Muscle lengthens during contraction (ex. extending elbow)

47

What is the difference in actin:myosin ratio in skeletal/cardiac muscle and smooth muscle?

Skeletal/cardiac- 2:1
Smooth- 20:1

48

Hyperactive stretch (deep tendon) reflexes can be indicative of what?

An upper motor neuron lesion

49

Upper motor neuron lesions are characterized by what?

Spastic (increased tone) paralysis
Hyperreflexia
Babinski sign
No atrophy
No fasciculations (twitches)