Flashcards in Gastrointestinal/Immune/Musculoskeletal Phys. Deck (50):
What is the name of the enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in the mouth during mastication?
Salivary amylase (into maltose)
What are the 3 types of cells in the stomach?
Mucosal (neck) cells, chief cells, parietal cells
Neck cells secrete what?
Mucus and gastrin
Parietal cells secrete what?
Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic facts
-HCl is needed for the activation of pepsinogen
Chief cells produce what? And what happens to it in the presence of HCl?
Pepsinogen, w/ HCl its activated into pepsin (which is needed for protein digestion)
What does bicarbonate do in the small intestine?
Neutralizes gastric acid and makes the pH alkaline
The presence of fat in the duodenum stimulates the release of ______?
What does CCK do once released?
Causes the gallbladder to contract and relaxes the sphincter of Oddi (allowing bile to be excreted into the duodenum)
This enzyme completes digestion/breakdown of starch (carbs.) in the small intestine?
Pancreatic amylase; into maltose
The large intestine mostly absorbs what?
Bacteria found in the large intestine produces ________?
Water soluble vitamins enter the enterocytes by?
Secondary active transport mechanisms
How is Vitamin B12 absorbed in the body?
By attaching to Intrinsic Factor secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach, which is delivered to the terminal ileum, then gets bound to Cubilin and transported into enteroctyes (I know this answer is way to long)
What is stored in the liver?
Glycogen, Vitamins A, D and B12
What is a byproduct of RBC breakdown in the spleen?
What are the contents of bile?
Water, bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol and bilirubin
What is secretin and what does it do?
-From the S cells in the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn
-Stimulates the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas
Grehlin does what related to hunger?
Increases the feeling of hunger
All blood cells come from what kind of cells?
Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells
Lymphoid cell lines give rise to what cells?
B cells (from bone marrown) and T cells (from thymus)
Myeloid cell lines give rise to what cell types?
Erythroblasts, granulocytes (turn into basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes
What are the types of WBC's and the percentage they make up?
Basophils (<1%) Never Let My Engine Blow
What is phagocytosis?
Process by which WBC's ingest offending agents in the tissue
What are the main WBC's involved in phagocytosis?
Neutrophils and macrophages (monocytes that have migrated)
What blood type is the universal donor?
What type of blood is the universal recipient?
In relation to Immunity what does Opsonization do?
Makes target cells more susceptible to phagocytosis
What type of cells make most antibodies?
What tissues will tolerate antigens without eliciting an inflammatory response? (called "Immunologically privileged")
B lymphocytes are also called _______ and make antibodies in the form of _________?
Plasma cells, immunoglobulins (for humoral immunity)
T lymphocytes are involved in what type of immunity?
cell-mediated immunity (no antibodies)
T lymphocytes constitute ___% of circulating lymphocytes?
CD8 T cells differentiate into what kind of cells?
Cytotoxic (killer) T cells
CD4 T cells differentiate into what kind of cells?
Helper T cells
What is the most abundant antibody in circulation and what does it do?
IgG- Promotes phagocytosis and cell lysis
What is the most abundantly produced antibody and what does it do?
IgA- Present in saliva, tears and breast milk
What antibody is important in parasitic infections and some allergic responses?
What is the largest antibody?
What is the functional unit of a muscle?
The thick filaments of a muscle contain ________, while the thin filaments contain ______ (3 things)?
Thin- Actin, Troponin, Tropomyosin
What is the calcium-binding protein in skeletal and cardiac muscle?
What determines if a muscle is slow or fast twitch?
The speed at which the sarcoplasmic reticulum pumps the Ca++ back in using the Calcium ATPase mechanism during relaxation of a muscle.
What is an isometric contraction?
muscle fibers do not change length
What is an isotonic contraction?
Load remains the same (ex. keeping elbow flexed with a weight in hand)
What is an isokinetic contraction?
Speed of contraction remains the same throughout
What is a concentric contraction?
Muscle shortens during contraction
What is an eccentric contraction?
Muscle lengthens during contraction (ex. extending elbow)
What is the difference in actin:myosin ratio in skeletal/cardiac muscle and smooth muscle?
Hyperactive stretch (deep tendon) reflexes can be indicative of what?
An upper motor neuron lesion