Gastrointestinal Pathology Flashcards Preview

Systems 2A Pathology > Gastrointestinal Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Pathology Deck (70):
1

Define gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

- acid from the stomach refluxes above the lower oesophageal sphincter and irritates the lower third of oesophageal mucosa

2

Give symptoms of GORD.

- dyspepsia
- regurgitation

3

How would you treat GORD?

- alginate-containing antacids
- proton-pump inhibitors

4

Define a Mallory Weiss tear.

- mucosa is torn at the gastro-oesophageal junction produced by a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure

5

Give symptoms/signs of a Mallory Weiss tear.

- black blood in the stool
- vomiting blood
- anaemia
- pallor
- tachycardia
- tachypnoea
- weak pulse

6

How would you investigate a Mallory Weiss tear?

- endoscopy

7

How would you treat a Mallory Weiss tear?

- often repairs itself
- may require clipping

8

Give symptoms/signs of oesophageal carcinoma.

- dysphagia
- pain
- unexplained weight loss
- anorexia
- lymphadenopathy

9

How would you investigate an oesophageal carcinoma?

- endoscopy
- barium swallow
- CT
- MRI
- endoscopic US
- PET

10

Define achalasia.

- functional aperistalsis of the oesophagus along with impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter

11

Give symptoms/signs of achalasia.

- progressive dysphagia
- weight loss
- chest pain
- regurgitation
- chest infections

12

How would you investigate achalasia?

- chest x-ray
- barium swallow
- endoscopy
- CT

13

How would you treat achalasia?

- calcium channel blocker
- nitrates
- balloon dilation

14

Define oesophageal spasm.

- contractions are exaggerated and uncoordinated leading to dysmotility

15

How would you investigate oesophageal spasm?

- barium swallow
- endoscopy
- manometry

16

How would you treat oesophageal spasm?

- proton-pump inhibitors
- anti-spasmodics
- nitrates
- calcium channel blockers

17

Define oesophageal varicies.

- bleeding at the oesophageal varicie (anastomose with the portal system) due to portal hypertension

18

Give symptoms/signs of oesophageal varicies.

- often asymptomatic
- splenomegaly
- jaundice
- tachypnoea
- tachycardia
- increased albumin and bilirubin

19

Define gastritis.

- inflammation of the stomach
- can be autoimmune, bacterial or chemical

20

Define peptic ulceration.

- a break in the superficial epithelial cells, penetrating down to the muscularis mucosa in either the stomach or dueodenum

21

What causes peptic ulceration?

- an imbalance of acid secretion
- usually associated with H. pylori infection

22

Give signs/symptom of peptic ulceration.

- recurrent, burning epigastic pain
- extremely localised pain
- worse when hungry
- nausea
- anorexia
- weight loss
- abdominal tenderness

23

How would you investigate peptic ulceration?

- urea breath test
- stool antigen test
- endoscopy

24

How would you treat peptic ulceration?

- antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin)
- proton-pump inhibitors

25

When would gastric cancer be more common?

- after H. pylori infection

26

Give signs/symptoms of gastric cancer.

- epigastric pain
- nausea
- anorexia
- weight loss
- palpable mass
- tenderness
- vomiting
- dysphagia
- Virchow's node

27

How would investigate gastric cancer?

- CT
- endoscopic US
- PET

28

Define gastric outlet obstruction.

- obstruction, either pre-pyloric, pyloric or duodenal, due to an active ulcer, or scar tissue formed after repair

29

Give signs/symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction.

- infrequent, large volume vomiting
- no pain
- gastric splash

30

How would you treat gastric outlet obstruction?

- IV fluid
- stomach drainage
- potent acid suppression
- endoscopic dilation

31

Define non-ulcer dyspepsia.

- dyspepsic type pain
- no ulcer on endoscopy

32

Describe coeliac disease.

- mucosa of the small intestine becomes inflamed due to wheat being unable to digest, activating an immune response

33

Give signs/symptoms of coeliac disease.

- diarrhoea
- steatorrhoea
- abdominal pain
- weight loss
- malaise
- lethargy
- mouth ulcers
- angular stomatitis

34

How would you treat coeliac disease?

- gluten-free diet

35

Define Crohn's disease.

- an inflammatory bowel disease which can affect any part of the GI tract

36

Give signs/symptoms of Crohn's disease.

- diarrhoea
- abdominal pain
- weight loss
- malaise
- lethary
- anorexia
- nausea
- vomiting
- pyrexia
- mouth ulcers
- tenderness

37

Define irritable bowel syndrome.

- functional disorder of the small bowel

38

List some triggers for IBS.

- low mood
- stress
- trauma
- infection
- antibiotics

39

Give some signs/symptoms of IBS.

- abdominal discomfort/pain
- mucus in stool
- increased frequency
- increased urgency
- painful periods
- improved after defecating

40

Give some signs/symptoms of colorectal cancer.

- fresh rectal bleeding
- altered bowel habit
- iron deficency
- weight loss
- anorexia
- malaise
- palpable mass
- colonic obstruction

41

What classification is used for colorectal cancer?

- Duke's classification

42

Define ulcerative colitis.

- inflammatory bowel disease occuring in the colon/rectum

43

Give signs/symptoms of ulcerative colitis.

- diarrhoea
- blood and mucus in stool
- discomfort
- malaise
- lethary
- anorexia
- weight loss

44

How would you investigate ulcerative colitis?

- colonoscopy
- C. diff stool test

45

How would you treat ulcerative colitis?

- 5-ASA
- biologics
- steroids
- immunosuppressants

46

In what group would you most likely see slow transit consipation?

- usually occurs in young women with infrequent bowel movements

47

How would you investigate slow transit consipation?

- colonoscopy
- faecal-occult blood
- calprotein
- CRP

48

Define haemorrhoids.

- haemorrhoid plexui become inflamed and protrude out from the anus due to increased intrabdominal pressure

49

Define an anal fissure.

- a tear in the skin-lined lower anal canal distal to the dentate line

50

How would you treat an anal fissure?

- stool softeners
- local anaesthetic gel

51

What tests would you carry out into hepatitis?

- bilirubin
- AST
- IgG
- IgM

52

Define non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

- an unbrella terms encompassing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis

53

How would you treat NAFLD?

- weight loss
- vitamin E supplements
- bariatric surgery

54

Define autoimmune hepatitis.

- a female dominent condition characterised by raised IgG leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis

55

Define primary biliary cholangitis.

- autoimmune condition of increased IgM with bile duct involvement

56

How would you investigate primary biliary cholangitis?

- MRCP
- cholangiogram
- serum alkaline phosphatase

57

Define hepatic encephalopathy.

- failure of the liver causing mental impairment

58

List some potential causes of hepatic encephalopathy.

- infection
- drugs
- constipation
- GI bleeding
- electrolyte distrubance

59

How would you treat spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

- IV antibiotics
- ascitic drainage
- IV albumin

60

Give signs/symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

- abdominal pain
- pyrexia
- rigors
- renal impairment
- decreased urine output
- changes in mental ability
- discolouration
- tachycardia
- chills
- low platelet count

61

Define alcoholic hepatitis.

- liver becomes cirrhosed due to repeated need for tissue repair

62

How would you investigate alcoholic hepatitis?

- test serum bilirubin
- AST
- ALT
- alkaline phosphatase
- biopsy

63

Define cholelithasis.

- blockage of biliary system due to gall stones

64

How would you treat cholelithasis?

- extracorpeal shockwave therapy
- ERCP

65

Define acute pancreatitis.

- inflammation of the pancreas due to acute injury

66

Define chronic pancreatitis.

- inflammation of the pancreas mostly caused by increased alcohol intake

67

How would you treat acute pancreatitis?

- analgesia
- IV fluids
- oxygen

68

How would you treat chronic pancreatitis?

- alcohol abstinence
- low fat diet
- pancreatic enzyme supplements

69

Give signs/symptoms of pancreatic cancer.

- upper abdominal pain
- painless obstructive jaundice
- weight loss
- anorexia
- fatigue
- diarrhoea
- nausea and vomiting
- steatorrhoea
- erythema nodosum
- ascites
- portal hypertension

70

How would you treat pancreatic cancer?

- Whipple's proceedure
- hepatic stenting
- chemotherapy
- analgesia