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Flashcards in gender Deck (20):
1

what is the difference between sex and gender?

sex is the biological differences
gender refers to the socially expected characteristics

2

who produced the deficit theory?

robin lakoff

3

what was the article called in which she referenced aspects of women's speech?

women's language

4

what are the the assumptions lackoff believed women's speech includes?

Hedge:
Use (super)polite forms:
Use tag questions:
Use empty adjectives
Use direct quotation.
Use question intonation in declarative statements:
Use “wh-” imperatives:
Speak less frequently
Overuse qualifiers:
Use modal constructions:
Avoid coarse language or expletives
Use indirect commands and requests:
Use more intensifiers:
Lack a sense of humour: women do not tell jokes well and often don't understand the punch line of jokes.

5

how can lackoff be criticised/which aspect in particular?

lack of humour
hard to standardise
cant explain female comedians (Miranda hart)

6

who produced the difference theory?

deborah tannen

7

how many contrasts did tannen say men and women had in their language?

6

8

what were the six contrasts that tannen theorised?

Status vs. support
Independence vs. intimacy
Advice vs. understanding
Information vs. feelings
Orders vs. proposals
Conflict vs. compromise

9

what is important about the way tannen produced the six contrasts, what view is she trying to portray?

the male characteristic comes first, showing that she may feel that due to these differences men are still dominant

10

what is another idea included in tannens theory?

the idea that the male is the norm

11

what evidence does tannen produce that deals with males being the norm?

the idea that the words 'man' 'mankind' 'men' can represent a whole species as well as a specific gender whereas women only represents a gender

12

why has tannens ideas been criticised?

as they are based on minimal science and many have said that they are simply a reflection of stereotypes

13

who is theorist for dominance?

zimmerman and west

14

what did zimmerman and west find?

that when looking at mixed sex conversations they found that men were more likely to interrupt
assert dominance

15

what did coates say about gender?

that women have been oppressed which is then shown in language
women and men are socialised differently

16

what did stanley say about derrpgatives?

there are 220 vs 20

17

what is semantic derogation?

over time words associated with women have come to gain a negative meaning

18

what are the two things looked at in

representations in gender
gender in action

19

what would newspapers or magazines show?

representations of gender

20

what would a transcript show?

gender in action