Gender & Education Flashcards Preview

Gender & Psychology > Gender & Education > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gender & Education Deck (22):

Explaining gender differences
1. Fear of success
Horner (72)

Horner (72) top of medical school: John is rich/handsome, Ann is unnattractive/unfriendly


Explaining gender differences
2. Self esteem
Klingon & Hyde (95)

Klingon & Hyde(96) men and boys have higher self esteem


Explaining gender differences
3. Attribution
Campbell & Henry (99)

Internal/external, stable/unstable
Campbell & Henry (99) W less likely to attribute success to internal ability


Explaining gender differences
4. Stereotypes
Walkerdine (80s)

Walkerdine (89) teacher comments in math: natural ability/potential/handwriting.
Qualitative methods, teachers trained, labelling, g performance


Explaining gender differences
4. Stereotype threat

Spencer, Steel & Quinn (99) math test "no gender diff" performed as well as each other. Stereotype denied.
Smith & White (07) Asian stereotype


Same sex education
Younger & Warrington (02/06)

SS better for boys in art and language
Girls in science and math
Boys can concentrate better
Generates less stereotypical views


Same sex education
Halpern et al(13) counter argument

SS more academically advanced on entry
SS kick out underperforming (Chicago)
Few brain differences
Gender divisions heighten stereotypes
Reduces mixed sex interactions
SS success is short: new curriculum enthusiasm

No data on performing better in SS than co-ed


Higher education
Why do men get more 1st and 3rd, and women more 2:1s?

Goodhart (88) risk takers
Mcrum (94) menstruation
Bradley (84) handwriting bias


Higher education
Other variables affecting final grades

Surtees, Wainwright & Pharoah (02) 19% worried by social problems. Anxiety and depression peak in exam period - W.

Leman (99) variations in degrees also come from race, SES, parental education. More course variation.


Higher education
Oxford study

Mellanby, Martin & Doherty (00)
Questionnaire 2/3m before Oxford Finals
F - more negative emotions
M - higher self esteem and risk taking
Neither affected end result - verbal reasoning predicted grade
1997: 1sts
M: English, engineering, maths
F: geography, biochemistry and chemistry


Work: gender influencing career choice
Bandara et al (01)
Liben, Bigler & Krogh (01)

Bandura et al (01) children and adolescents presume they'll be better at own gendered careers

Liben, Bigler & Krogh (01) 6-11yrs
Familiar jobs: assume M is higher status
Taught novel M/F jobs - gender had no effect on desirability
Older children perceived M jobs as higher status


Work: the pay gap
Under & Crawford (92)

Unger & Crawford (92)
Few women on boards, positions of responsibility or management
In female careers, men dominate the upper ranks


Work: leadership
Eagly et al (03)
Eagly & Karau (02)

Eagly et al (03) seen as masculine trait, adopt M style
Eagly & Karau (02) harder to become leaders and less positive views when women become one


Work : role conflict
Double Shift Phenomenon
Ansin et al (89)

W more positive about potential gains from retirement than M
No difference in attitudes to loss of work


Emphasis on objective quantitative research reflects male bias

Keller (1985)


Women consistently predict that they will get lower salaries than men at the start and peak of their career

Jackson et al (1992)


1. Fear of success
Cherry & Deaux (78)

Cherry & Deaux (78) M in nursing school negative consequences


Explaining gender differences
1.Fear of success
Krishnan & Sweeney (98)

Krishnan & Sweeney (98) negative stereotypes of female doctors are changing


Explaining gender differences
1. Self esteem
Breyer (98)

Breyer (98) stereotypes impact self esteem and confidence


Explaining gender differences
2. Self esteem
Brown et al (98)

Brown et al (98) M overestimate ability, creating a positive self representation


Explaining gender difference
3. Attribution
Rosenfeld & Stephen (78)

Rosenfeld & Stephen (78) increase internal attribution for masculine/feminine tasks


Explaining gender differences
4. Stereotype threat
Dar-nimrod & Heine (06)

Dar-Nimrod & Heine (06) 2 math tests and 1 verbal essay reading. In Experience / no GD W performed better than sex prime / sex difference