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Flashcards in Gender & Education Deck (22):
0

Explaining gender differences
1. Fear of success
Horner (72)

Horner (72) top of medical school: John is rich/handsome, Ann is unnattractive/unfriendly

1

Explaining gender differences
2. Self esteem
Klingon & Hyde (95)

Klingon & Hyde(96) men and boys have higher self esteem

2

Explaining gender differences
3. Attribution
Campbell & Henry (99)

Internal/external, stable/unstable
Campbell & Henry (99) W less likely to attribute success to internal ability

3

Explaining gender differences
4. Stereotypes
Walkerdine (80s)

Walkerdine (89) teacher comments in math: natural ability/potential/handwriting.
Qualitative methods, teachers trained, labelling, g performance

4

Explaining gender differences
4. Stereotype threat

Spencer, Steel & Quinn (99) math test "no gender diff" performed as well as each other. Stereotype denied.
Smith & White (07) Asian stereotype

5

Same sex education
Younger & Warrington (02/06)

SS better for boys in art and language
Girls in science and math
Boys can concentrate better
Generates less stereotypical views

6

Same sex education
Halpern et al(13) counter argument

SS more academically advanced on entry
SS kick out underperforming (Chicago)
Few brain differences
Gender divisions heighten stereotypes
Reduces mixed sex interactions
SS success is short: new curriculum enthusiasm

No data on performing better in SS than co-ed

7

Higher education
Why do men get more 1st and 3rd, and women more 2:1s?

Goodhart (88) risk takers
Mcrum (94) menstruation
Bradley (84) handwriting bias

8

Higher education
Other variables affecting final grades

Surtees, Wainwright & Pharoah (02) 19% worried by social problems. Anxiety and depression peak in exam period - W.

Leman (99) variations in degrees also come from race, SES, parental education. More course variation.

9

Higher education
Oxford study

Mellanby, Martin & Doherty (00)
Questionnaire 2/3m before Oxford Finals
F - more negative emotions
M - higher self esteem and risk taking
Neither affected end result - verbal reasoning predicted grade
1997: 1sts
M: English, engineering, maths
F: geography, biochemistry and chemistry

10

Work: gender influencing career choice
Bandara et al (01)
Liben, Bigler & Krogh (01)

Bandura et al (01) children and adolescents presume they'll be better at own gendered careers

Liben, Bigler & Krogh (01) 6-11yrs
Familiar jobs: assume M is higher status
Taught novel M/F jobs - gender had no effect on desirability
Older children perceived M jobs as higher status

11

Work: the pay gap
Under & Crawford (92)

Unger & Crawford (92)
Few women on boards, positions of responsibility or management
In female careers, men dominate the upper ranks

12

Work: leadership
Eagly et al (03)
Eagly & Karau (02)

Eagly et al (03) seen as masculine trait, adopt M style
Eagly & Karau (02) harder to become leaders and less positive views when women become one

13

Work : role conflict
Double Shift Phenomenon
Ansin et al (89)

W more positive about potential gains from retirement than M
No difference in attitudes to loss of work

14

Emphasis on objective quantitative research reflects male bias

Keller (1985)

15

Women consistently predict that they will get lower salaries than men at the start and peak of their career

Jackson et al (1992)

16

Explanations
1. Fear of success
Cherry & Deaux (78)

Cherry & Deaux (78) M in nursing school negative consequences

17

Explaining gender differences
1.Fear of success
Krishnan & Sweeney (98)

Krishnan & Sweeney (98) negative stereotypes of female doctors are changing

18

Explaining gender differences
1. Self esteem
Breyer (98)

Breyer (98) stereotypes impact self esteem and confidence

19

Explaining gender differences
2. Self esteem
Brown et al (98)

Brown et al (98) M overestimate ability, creating a positive self representation

20

Explaining gender difference
3. Attribution
Rosenfeld & Stephen (78)

Rosenfeld & Stephen (78) increase internal attribution for masculine/feminine tasks

21

Explaining gender differences
4. Stereotype threat
Dar-nimrod & Heine (06)

Dar-Nimrod & Heine (06) 2 math tests and 1 verbal essay reading. In Experience / no GD W performed better than sex prime / sex difference