Flashcards in Gender Identity Deck (50):
Sexual behaviour may be deemed abnormal if:
-it deviates from the norms of one's society
-it is self-defeating
-causes personal distress
-interferes with one's ability to function
What is Gender Identity?
One's psychological sense of being female or male
What is Gender Identity Disorder? (gender dysphoria)
A disorder in which the individual believes that her or his anatomic gender is inconsistent with his or her psychological sense of being male or female
-5x as many boys as girls have this
What is Gender Reassignment
the process of transition through medical intervention
Psychodynamic perspective on gender identity disorder
-Extremely close mother son relationships
-Parents with empty relationships
-Fathers who were absent or detached
Learning Theories on Gender Identity disorder
Unavailability of a strong male role model
What is exhibitionism?
Involves recurrent, powerful urges to expose one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger in order to surprise, shock, or sexually arouse the victim
-not interested in actual sexual contact with the victim
-people with this tend to be shy, lacking in social and sexual skills
What is Fetishism?
A person uses an inanimate object or a body part as a focus of sexual interest and as a source of arousal
What is Transvestic Fetishism?
The chief feature is recurrent, powerful urges and related fantasies involving cross-dressing for purposes of sexual arousal
-typically heterosexual men who dress up like women
What is Voyeurism?
Either acting on or being strongly distressed by recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving watching unsuspecting people, generally strangers, who are undressing, disrobing or engaging in sexual activity
-"peeping" for sexual excitement
-viewing porn doesn't count, has to be watching UNSUSPECTING people
What is Frotteurism?
- urges or fantasies involving rubbing against or touching a non-consenting person
-generally occurs in crowded places, brief contact
-the French word frottage refers to the artistic technique of making a drawing by rubbing against a raised object
Recurrent, powerful urges and related fantasies involving sexual activity with prepubescent children (typically 13+)
-doesn't necessarily mean they acted on these fantasies, just the fact that they had them is enough
-to be diagnosed, must be over 16 and at least 5 years older than person having fantasies about
What are 2 pathways to developing persistent sexual offending against children?
-Sexual attraction to prepubescent children (pedophelia)
-Presence of both indicates very high likelihood that a person will offend against children
What is Sexual Masochism?
Involves recurrent urges and fantasies relating to sexual acts that involve being humiliated, bound, flogged or made to suffer in other ways
-Hypoxyphilia: sexually aroused by being deprived of oxygen
What is Sexual Sadism?
Recurrent, powerful urges and related fantasies of engaging in acts in which the person is sexually aroused by inflicting physical suffering or humiliation on another person
-Sadomasochism: sexual interaction involving both sadistic and masochistic acts
What is Telephone scatologia?
making obscene phone calls
What is Necrophilia?
sexual urges or fantasies involving sexual contact with corpses
What is partialism?
sole focus on part of the body
What is Zoophilia?
Urges or fantasies involving sexual contact with animals
What is Coprophilia?
Sexual arousal associated with feces
What is Klismaphilia?
Sexual arousal associated with enemas
What is Urophilia?
Sexual arousal associated with urine
Psychodynamic perspective on paraphilias?
A defence against leftover castration anxiety, displace sexual arousal into other activities
What is learning theory perspective on paraphilias?
Conditioning and observational learning- object or activity becomes inadvertently associated with sexual arousal
CBT perspective on paraphilias
Guided learning, motivations, group processes, over-learning, skill development
What is psychoanalysts treatment of paraphilias?
Bring childhood sexual conflicts into awareness so that they can be resolved in the light of the individuals adult personality
What is the behavioural treatment of paraphilias?
Used aversive conditioning to induce negative emotional reaction to paraphilic stimuli or fantasies
What is CBT treatment for paraphilias?
Building social skills, and the development of stress-management skill
treat anxiety and depression
What are the 3 types of sexual dysfunction?
1) Sexual interest/desire disorder
2) Orgasm disorder
3) Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder
-these categories correspond to the first three phases of the sexual response cycle
What is Female Sexual Interest/Desire Disorder
Difficulty becoming sexually aroused
Hypoactive- lack of sexual interest
-most common in women
What is Male Erectile Disorder
difficulty in achieving or maintaining erection during sexual activity
What are 3 types of Orgasm disorder
1) Female orgasmic disorder
2) male orgasmic disorder- rare
3) Premature Ejaculation- most common disorder in men
What is Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder?
-Intense fear/anxiety in anticipation of, during, or as a result of vaginal intercourse
-actual pain experienced in pelvis or vulvovaginal area during attempted or as a result of vaginal penetration
-marked tensing or tightening of the lower pelvic/ab muscles during attempted penetration
Biological perspectives on sexual dysfunction
-Deficient testosterone production and thyroid over activity or under activity are among the many biological conditions that can lead to impaired sexual desire
Psychodynamic perspectives on sexual dysfunction
conflicts of the phyllic stage
Learning Perspectives on sexual dysfunction
-sexual skills need to be taught through partners, reading, talking to others
Cognitive perspectives on sexual dysfunctions
-irrational beliefs; catastrophize single incidents
-anxiety leads to shame and embarrassment
-failure leads to avoidance
-Barlow: interfering cognitions which include expectations of failure
Sociocultural Perspectives on sexual dysfunctions
-restricted beliefs about sex
-connection b/w man's sexual performance and his manhood- if he fails, he feels embarrassed, ego is shot
What can sex therapy be used for?
-Sexual interest/desire disorders- use of self stimulation exercises together, start with partner stimulation in non-genital areas and slowly progress
-Disorders of arousal: sensate focus exercises- nondemand sexual contacts, mutual pleasure activities, taking turns
-Disorders of orgasm- directed masturbation, stop and go technique for premature ejaculation
Biological treatments of male sexual dysfunction
What does paraphilia mean?
people show sexual arousal in response to atypical stimuli
-fantasies and sexual urges involving these things that last for longer than 6 months
Are all molestors pedophiles?
-pedophiles are usually well acquainted with their victims
-not stereotypical dirty old men, just normal 30 to 40 yr old guys
3 levels of sexual assault
Level 1: any non-consensual bodily contact for a sexual purpose
Level 2: sexual assault with a weapon
Level 3: aggravated sexual assault, victim is maimed or disfigured and has life endangered
Two phase process of treating sexual assault victims?
1) assists women in coping with the immediate aftermath of sexual assault
2) helps them with their long term adjustment
What is sexual aversion disorder?
strong aversion to genital sexual contact and avoid all or nearly all genital contact with partner
Sexual arousal disorders
Female sexual arousal disorder or male erectile disorder
-inability to achieve or maintain the physiological responses involved in sexual arousal or excitement
sexual intercourse is associated with recurrent pain in the genital region
-usually due to insufficient lubrication or UTI
involuntary spasm of muscles surrounding vagina