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Flashcards in Gender Identity Deck (50):
1

Sexual behaviour may be deemed abnormal if:

-it deviates from the norms of one's society
-it is self-defeating
-harms others
-causes personal distress
-interferes with one's ability to function

2

What is Gender Identity?

One's psychological sense of being female or male

3

What is Gender Identity Disorder? (gender dysphoria)

A disorder in which the individual believes that her or his anatomic gender is inconsistent with his or her psychological sense of being male or female
-5x as many boys as girls have this

4

What is Gender Reassignment

the process of transition through medical intervention

5

Psychodynamic perspective on gender identity disorder

-Extremely close mother son relationships
-Parents with empty relationships
-Fathers who were absent or detached

6

Learning Theories on Gender Identity disorder

Unavailability of a strong male role model

7

What is exhibitionism?

Involves recurrent, powerful urges to expose one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger in order to surprise, shock, or sexually arouse the victim
-not interested in actual sexual contact with the victim
-people with this tend to be shy, lacking in social and sexual skills

8

What is Fetishism?

A person uses an inanimate object or a body part as a focus of sexual interest and as a source of arousal

9

What is Transvestic Fetishism?

The chief feature is recurrent, powerful urges and related fantasies involving cross-dressing for purposes of sexual arousal
-typically heterosexual men who dress up like women

10

What is Voyeurism?

Either acting on or being strongly distressed by recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies involving watching unsuspecting people, generally strangers, who are undressing, disrobing or engaging in sexual activity
-"peeping" for sexual excitement
-viewing porn doesn't count, has to be watching UNSUSPECTING people

11

What is Frotteurism?

- urges or fantasies involving rubbing against or touching a non-consenting person
-generally occurs in crowded places, brief contact
-the French word frottage refers to the artistic technique of making a drawing by rubbing against a raised object

12

Pedophelia

Recurrent, powerful urges and related fantasies involving sexual activity with prepubescent children (typically 13+)
-doesn't necessarily mean they acted on these fantasies, just the fact that they had them is enough
-to be diagnosed, must be over 16 and at least 5 years older than person having fantasies about

13

What are 2 pathways to developing persistent sexual offending against children?

-Antisociality
-Sexual attraction to prepubescent children (pedophelia)

-Presence of both indicates very high likelihood that a person will offend against children

14

What is Sexual Masochism?

Involves recurrent urges and fantasies relating to sexual acts that involve being humiliated, bound, flogged or made to suffer in other ways
-Hypoxyphilia: sexually aroused by being deprived of oxygen

15

What is Sexual Sadism?

Recurrent, powerful urges and related fantasies of engaging in acts in which the person is sexually aroused by inflicting physical suffering or humiliation on another person
-Sadomasochism: sexual interaction involving both sadistic and masochistic acts

16

What is Telephone scatologia?

making obscene phone calls

17

What is Necrophilia?

sexual urges or fantasies involving sexual contact with corpses

18

What is partialism?

sole focus on part of the body

19

What is Zoophilia?

Urges or fantasies involving sexual contact with animals

20

What is Coprophilia?

Sexual arousal associated with feces

21

What is Klismaphilia?

Sexual arousal associated with enemas

22

What is Urophilia?

Sexual arousal associated with urine

23

Psychodynamic perspective on paraphilias?

A defence against leftover castration anxiety, displace sexual arousal into other activities

24

What is learning theory perspective on paraphilias?

Conditioning and observational learning- object or activity becomes inadvertently associated with sexual arousal

25

CBT perspective on paraphilias

Guided learning, motivations, group processes, over-learning, skill development

26

What is psychoanalysts treatment of paraphilias?

Bring childhood sexual conflicts into awareness so that they can be resolved in the light of the individuals adult personality

27

What is the behavioural treatment of paraphilias?

Used aversive conditioning to induce negative emotional reaction to paraphilic stimuli or fantasies

28

What is CBT treatment for paraphilias?

Building social skills, and the development of stress-management skill

29

SSRI

treat anxiety and depression

30

What are the 3 types of sexual dysfunction?

1) Sexual interest/desire disorder
2) Orgasm disorder
3) Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

-these categories correspond to the first three phases of the sexual response cycle

31

What is Female Sexual Interest/Desire Disorder

Difficulty becoming sexually aroused

Hypoactive- lack of sexual interest
-most common in women

32

What is Male Erectile Disorder

difficulty in achieving or maintaining erection during sexual activity

33

What are 3 types of Orgasm disorder

1) Female orgasmic disorder
2) male orgasmic disorder- rare
3) Premature Ejaculation- most common disorder in men

34

What is Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder?

-Intense fear/anxiety in anticipation of, during, or as a result of vaginal intercourse
-actual pain experienced in pelvis or vulvovaginal area during attempted or as a result of vaginal penetration
-marked tensing or tightening of the lower pelvic/ab muscles during attempted penetration

35

Biological perspectives on sexual dysfunction

-Deficient testosterone production and thyroid over activity or under activity are among the many biological conditions that can lead to impaired sexual desire

36

Psychodynamic perspectives on sexual dysfunction

conflicts of the phyllic stage

37

Learning Perspectives on sexual dysfunction

-sexual abuse
-sexual skills need to be taught through partners, reading, talking to others

38

Cognitive perspectives on sexual dysfunctions

-irrational beliefs; catastrophize single incidents
-anxiety leads to shame and embarrassment
-failure leads to avoidance
-Barlow: interfering cognitions which include expectations of failure

39

Sociocultural Perspectives on sexual dysfunctions

-performance anxiety
-restricted beliefs about sex
-connection b/w man's sexual performance and his manhood- if he fails, he feels embarrassed, ego is shot

40

What can sex therapy be used for?

-Sexual interest/desire disorders- use of self stimulation exercises together, start with partner stimulation in non-genital areas and slowly progress
-Disorders of arousal: sensate focus exercises- nondemand sexual contacts, mutual pleasure activities, taking turns
-Disorders of orgasm- directed masturbation, stop and go technique for premature ejaculation
-Genito-pelvic pain/penetration

41

Biological treatments of male sexual dysfunction

Viagra, Cialis
SSRIs

42

What does paraphilia mean?

people show sexual arousal in response to atypical stimuli
-fantasies and sexual urges involving these things that last for longer than 6 months

43

Are all molestors pedophiles?

No!
-pedophiles are usually well acquainted with their victims
-not stereotypical dirty old men, just normal 30 to 40 yr old guys

44

3 levels of sexual assault

Level 1: any non-consensual bodily contact for a sexual purpose
Level 2: sexual assault with a weapon
Level 3: aggravated sexual assault, victim is maimed or disfigured and has life endangered

45

Two phase process of treating sexual assault victims?

1) assists women in coping with the immediate aftermath of sexual assault
2) helps them with their long term adjustment

46

What is sexual aversion disorder?

strong aversion to genital sexual contact and avoid all or nearly all genital contact with partner

47

Sexual arousal disorders

Female sexual arousal disorder or male erectile disorder
-inability to achieve or maintain the physiological responses involved in sexual arousal or excitement

48

Dyspareunia

sexual intercourse is associated with recurrent pain in the genital region
-usually due to insufficient lubrication or UTI

49

Vaginismus

involuntary spasm of muscles surrounding vagina

50

Diabetes is most common organic cause of ______ disfunction

erectile