Gender, Language & Power Flashcards Preview

Gender & Psychology > Gender, Language & Power > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gender, Language & Power Deck (23):
0

Shelton (93)

Language transmits social order and a system of beliefs.
Assigns an unequal value to gender, a part of culture.

1

Socialisation
Rubin (74)

Blue strength/power/control
Pink cute/small/pretty

2

Gender is a social construct.
Folk linguistics.

Gender vs sex differences.
Language reinforces stereotypes, changes behaviour also: school, conversational style. Children are keen to please their parents.

3

Socialisation
Crowley (01)

Parents explain interactive science museum exhibits more with sons than with daughters

4

Socialisation
Parke (02)

Fathers far more macho language with their sons

5

Socialisation
Tennebaum & Leaper (03)

Fathers use scientific language with their sons more than their daughters.
Fathers pass on views of gender norm violation.

6

Socialisation
Block (83)

Teach sons when reading.
Daughters - focus on spending a nice time together.

7

Socialisation
Adams et al (95)

Parents use More varied emotional language used with daughters

8

Sexist language
A. Power
Gender example

Uneven pairs implying ownership
Irrelevant gender references to draw attention to breaking norms (career woman, nice guy).
Inappropriate descriptions hat contribute to stereotyping (hysterical lady)

9

Sexist language
A. Power
Non Gender Example

April 2000 - 2001
1,669 GB articles analysed
Palestinian Areas
Israeli neighbourhoods/communities

10

Sexist language
B. Passive Language
Gender Example

To mask accomplishment (winning/giving award)
To remove responsibility (a woman was raped)

11

Sexist language
B. Passive Voice
Non Gender Example

Headlines
Suicide bomber kills 8 in Jerusalem bus - CNN
Jerusalem bus bomb kills 8 - The Independent

12

Sexist language
C. Generic He

MacKay & Fulkerson (79) generic and sex specific sentences
A judge must be careful about what he says to the media M
A bicyclist can bet that he is not safe from dogs N
A nurse must frequently help his patients out of bed F
95% made at least one error
87% error rate
Cameraman, fireman

13

Speech style & conversation
Lakoff (75)

Women have ineffective speech strategies
Pitch
Apologies, polite
Qualifiers
U
Expletives
Tag questions
Specialised vocabulary

14

Speech style and conversation
O'Barr & Atkins (80)

Studied courtroom cases for Lakoff's characteristics (30m)
Characteristics of powerlessness/low status
Professional men and women use flat intonation and lower pitch

15

Speech style & conversation
1. Interruption
Zimmerman & West (75)

Same sex: 3/4 interruptions, 10/12 overlaps
Mixed sex: M 46, F 2 interruptions, M 9 overlaps

16

Speech style & conversation
1. Interruption
Eakins & Eakins (76)

College faculty discussions secretly recorded
Men interrupted more often, particularly high status men

17

Speech style & conversation
1. Interruptions
O'Barr & Atkins (80)

Higher status doesn't protect women: Dr and Patient

18

Speech style & conversation
2. Topic Control
Crawford (95)

Women introduce topics of conversation, use attention seeking devices
Men decide, indicate boredom or lack of interest by withholding responses

19

Speech style & conversation
3. Talking Time
Brizendine (06)

Men use 7,000 words a day
Women use 20,000 words a day

20

Speech style & conversation
3. Talking Time
Mehl et al (07)

Electronic recorders: 30 secs every 12mins
F: 16,200, M: 15,600
University students - lectures

21

Speech style & conversation
3. Talking Time
Spender (89)

Secretly recorded academic conversations.
Had a fair share of the conversation?
15 F had 8-42% of tt, felt fair share
4 M had 58-75% and felt it was less than fair
12 M had a fair share

22

Speech style & conversation
4. Silence
Fishman (80)

Married couples: women use minimal responses to facilitate conversations, men use minimal responses to signal boredom and change topic.