Gene Organisation and Transcription-1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gene Organisation and Transcription-1 Deck (20):
1

Define Transcription

The process in which nucleotide information in the DNA is copied into RNA is called TRANSCRIPTION

2

What does RNA Polymerse 1 do?

Transcribes rRNA genes

3

What does RNA polymerase 2 do?

Transcribes genes encoding proteins into mRNA

4

What does RNA polymerase 3 do?

Transcribes tRNA and 5S RNA genes

5

Define Gene Promotor

The DNA sequences at which the initiation complex assembles is called a gene promoter .

6

What are transcription factors

The amount (level) of transcription from a given gene is regulated by the activity of DNA binding proteins known as Transcription Factors.

7

Name the parts that make Gene promoter

TATA Box Transcription Binding Site add pic

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8

List the components of the Basal Transcription Complex

DAB JHEF

TFIID TFIIA TFIIB TFIIJ TFIIE TFIIF TFIIH

These are known as basal transcription factors RNA POL II add pic.

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9

What is the role of the Basal Transcription factor

The Basal Transcription Complex allows RNA polymerase II to be phosphorylated and then engage in transcription

10

What does TF IID contains

contains TATA Binding Protein(TBP) and TBP Accessory Factors (TAF’s).

11

What Does TF IID do when it binds to DNA

Partially unwinds the DNA helix, widening the minor grove to allow extensive contact with bases within the DNA

 

NB this unwinding is asymmetric 

12

Why is TF IIB particularly important?

. TFIIB is particularly important, as it is able to bind to TFIID and RNA Polymerase II

13

What is already bonds to RNA polymerase II

TF IIF

14

List the order that transcription factors bind to TATA box

D A and B RNA POL II with TF IIF J and E and H

15

What doe TF IIH do?

TFII H promotes further unwinding of the DNA helix to facilitate RNA synthesis by RNA Polymerase II.

16

What do transcription factors do when they bind to DNA?

Transcription factors “bend DNA” on binding. They can interact with each other and the Basal Transcription Complex to modulate transcription.

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17

What is the building block of chromatin

nucleosome

18

Transcription factors also facilitate transcription by helping to remodel “chromatin”. They do this by recruiting proteins with enzymatic activities that modify histones. How do they modify histones?

add pic

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19

What does hyperacetylation of histones correlate with?

HYPERACETYLATION CORRELATES WITH GENE EXPRESSION

20

What does hypoacetylation correlates with?

HYPOACETYLATION CORRELATES WITH GENE REPRESSION