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Flashcards in General Deck (66):
0

What are Contraindications?

Reasons to not use a drug

1

Indications?

Reasons for using

2

Pharmacokinetics?

What happens to drugs in the body

Happen-k

3

Pharmodynamics

Exert effect

4

What are the drug sources?

Plants, animals, bacteria and mold, lab, and mineral

5

5

Plant sources?
(Botanical)

Gums
Resins
Oils
Alkaloids (ine)
Glycosides (in)

(5)

6

What are examples of plant resource (botanical)
Alkaloids (ine)?

Atropine
Caffeine
Nicotine

(3)
(ALl together- ine- 3 letters)

7

What are examples of plant resource (botanical)
Glycosides (in)?

Digoxin
Digitoxin

(2- 2 letters- dig in)

8

Bacteria & mold

Antibiotics (Penicillin) and anthelminitics (ivermectin)

9

Mineral sources

Electrolytes

Sodium, potassium, chloride, iron, selenium & others (5)

10

Toxicity

Adverse drug reactions

11

Examples of minerals?

Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Iron
Selenium

12

Drugs with more range and safer-

Lab

13

Pharmo

Drug/medicine

14

Pharmacology

Study of drugs

15

Therapy

Treatment of disease

16

Pharmacotherapy

Treatment of disease with medicine

17

Kinetics

Study of motion

18

Inactive ingredients

Binder, coating, coloring agents, disintegrants, emulsifiers, filers/diluents, flavor agents, flow agents, humectants, preservatives, sweetening agents, & thickening agents

19

Binder
Inactive ingredient

Holds tablet together

Ex: cellulose, lactose, methylcellulose, sorbitol, starch, xylitol, & others

20

Coating
Inactive ingredient

Protects tablet from breaking, absorbing moisture, & early disintegration

Ex: beeswax, carob extract, methylcellulose, cellulose, acetate, acrylic resin, & others

21

Coloring agents
Inactive ingredients

Provide Color and enhance appearance

Ex: yellow No.5, annatto, caramel color, titanium oxide, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No.3, and others

22

Disintegrants
Inactive ingredients

Expand when exposed to liquid, allowing tablets and capsules to dissolve and disperse their active ingredients

Ex: cellulose products, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, & starch

23

Emulsifiers
Inactive ing.

Allow fat-soluble and water-soluble agents to mix so they do not separate

Ex: stearic acid, Xanthan gum, lethicin, & vegetables oils

24

Fillers/diluents
Inactive ing.

Increase bulk or volume

Ex: calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, cellulose lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, starch, sucrose, & vegetable oils

25

Flavor agents
Inactive ing.

Create a desired taste or mask an undesirable taste

Ex: beeswax, carob extract, glyceryl triacetate, & natural orange

26

Flow agents
Inactive ing.

Prevent powders from sticking together

Ex: calcium stearate, glyceryl triacetate, polyethylene glycol, silica, sodium benzoate, & talc

27

Humectants
Inactive ing.

Holds moisture in a product

Ex: glycerin, glycerol, glycerol triacetate, & sorbitol

28

Preservatives
Inactive ing.

Prevent degradation & extend the shelf life of a product

Ex: citric acid, glycerol, potassium benzoate, sodium benzoate, & others

29

Sweetening agents
Inactive ing.

Improve taste

Aspartate, fructose, glycerin, sorbitol, sucrose, & xylitol

30

Thickening agents
Inactive ing.

Increase viscosity of a product

Ex: methylcellulose, povidone, sorbitol, & others

31

Pharmacokinetics

The study of drug motion, which includes absorption, blood levels, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs

32

Pharmacotherapeutics

Drug selected by broadly defined methods:

diagnostic- assessment of a patient ( history, physical examination, lab test, & other diagnostic procedures)

Empirical- practical experience & common sense

Symptomatic- signs and symptoms

33

7 responsibilities

1. Ensuring that the correct drug is being administered
2. Administering the drug by the correct route at the correct time
3. Carefully observing the animal's response to the drug
4. Questioning any medication orders that are not clear
5. Creating & affixing labels to medication containers accurately
6. Explaining administration instructions to clients
7. Recording appropriate info. In the medical record

34

4 regimen
(Plan for giving drug) by specific regimen
Pharmacotherapeutics

1. Route of administration
2. Total amount to be given (dose)
3. How often the drug is to be given (frequency)
4. How long the drug will be given (duration)

35

Caution: federal law restricts use of this drug by order of licensed vet"

Legend (prescription) drug

36

Drug distribution

1. Absorption site
2. Plasma of bloodstream
3. Interstitial fluid that surround cells
4. Into the cells
5. Combine w/ cellular receptors to create action

37

Traditional drug source origin...

Plants & minerals

38

Animals used for

Hormones until recently & anticoagulants


More are being synthesized in labs it's more range/safer

39

What are Pharmacotherapeutics?

Diagnostic
Empirical
Symptomatic

40

Pharmacotherapeutics
All drugs have potential...
As per FDA, any drug w/ potential...

To cause harm must be administered by trained personnel & under supervision of DVM

41

DVM-client-patient relationship is only

Only way drugs may be suspended

42

FDA
Prescription drugs have

Legend statement

43

Extra label use

Valid relationship: responsibility for patient, knowledge for diagnosis, available for follow up

44

Over the counter

No prescription needed

45

Controlled substances are drugs that

Have potential for dependency

46

Pharmokinetics

Complex sequence of events that occurs after drug administration
(Motion, how do things move throughout the body)

47

Pharmacokinetics
Sequence

Rate of drug absorption
Amount of drug given
Drug distribution throughout body
Drug metabolism or biotransformation
Rate & route of excretion (kidney)
5

IV fast
ID slow

48

Route of administration

Oral (enteral)

Parenteral- injectable (IV, IM, SC or SQ, ID, IP, IA, Intrarticular, IC, intramedullary, Epidural/subdural)

Inhalation

Topical

49

Drug absorption
Bioavailability

Degree to which the drug is absorbed & reaches general circulation

Manufacturing effects characteristics of drugs

50

Factors affecting absorption

Mechanism
pH & ionization state of drug
Absorptive surface area
Blood supply to area
Solubility of drug (stomach absorbs, change pH)
Dosage form (IJ faster)
Status of GI tract (esp. Orally)
Interaction w/ other drugs
8

51

Legend
Prescription (legend) drug

A drug limited to use under the supervision of a vet b/ potential danger, difficulty of administration, or other considerations

52

Extra label use

Use of drug not specifically listed on U.S. Food & Drug Adminstration (FDA) approved label

53

Therapeutic drug monitoring

Monitoring patient for severe toxic effects

54

Transdermal

Skin

55

Lipid solubility tends to be directly proportional to

The degree of drug nonionization

56

Degree of lipid solubility of drug expressed as

It's lipid partition coefficient

57

A high lipid partition coefficient indicates

Enhanced drug absorption

58

Drugs that are highly lipid soluble tend to move

Readily into plasma into the interstitial fluid

In nonionized form drugs follow similar pattern,
Once present in tissues drugs may be stored there.
Tissues like fat, kidney, bone, & liver may act as storage sites 4 drugs like barbiturates, inhalation anesthetics, and others. When drug moves from storage 2 blood, & additional doses are given, an exaggerated or prolonged effect may occur-additive effects

59

Metabolite

Once a drug has been biotransformed

Usually inactive, but in some cases may have similar, less, or more activity.

60

Biotransformation

or Metabolism, the ability 2 change drug from chemically from the form it was administered to elimination form

Most occurs in liver b/ of action of microsomal enzymes called cytochrome P450 enzyme found in liver cells. (They allow elimination in urine or bile)
Some occurs in kidney, lungs, & nervous system

61

Efficacy

The extent to which a drug causes the intended effect in a patient

62

Pharmacokinetics

Complex sequence of events that occur after drug administration

63

Pharmacokinetics
Factors influencing blood levels of a drug & patient's response

1. Rate of drug absorption
2. Amount of drug absorbed
3. Drug distribution throughout body
4. Drug metabolism or biotransformation
5. Rate & route of excretion

64

Routes of Administration

Oral (enteral)

Parenteral (IV, IM, SC or SQ, ID, IP, IA, intrarticular, IC, intramedullary, epidural/subdural

Inhalation

Topical

65

Drug absorption
Bioavailability:

Degree to which the drug is absorbed & reaches general circulation

Manufacturing makes a difference