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Flashcards in General Deck (76):
1

When was the 30 Years War?

1618 - 1648

2

What is a Limited War?

survival of the nation not in question, usually short

3

What is a Total War?

- national survival at stake
- usually lasts a long time, more than a year

4

How many people are estimated to have served in the Revolutionary War?

184,000 - 250,000

5

How many people served in the War of 1812?

250,000 +

6

How many people served in the Mexican War?

75,000 +

7

What were the significant numbers about WWII?

1) highest total personnel
2) highest average duration of service
3) highest percentage of death
4) highest amount of soldiers drafted

8

Which wars had the least amount of soldiers drafted?

Civil War and Persian Gulf War

9

Where were soldiers buried after the Battle of Gettysburg?

- Union soldiers buried in National Arlington Cemetery
- Confederates left to rot for weeks

10

How many people died in Gettysburg?

50,000 +

11

When was the Gettysburg Address?

November 19th, 1863

12

What were some changes in warfare following the end of the Age of Religious Wars?

- War could be considered the sport of kings with agreed upon rules
- no formal conference

13

What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?

only freed slaves in rebellion states

14

What amendment abolished slavery?

13th

15

What was the American Paradox?

most of America's founding fathers had slaves

16

What is a War of Attrition, a modern total war feature?

- end of the climactic battle
- Lots of deaths
- More than a single battle
- Longer the war went on, the worse the lootings
- military strategy in which a belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.

17

Unconditional Surrender became the norm after the Civil War. T/F

true

18

What is conscription?

the drafting of soldiers

19

What was the first war with a draft?

American Civil War

20

What was the first war with telegrams?

American Civil War

21

Who was exempt from the draft?

Meninites, Amish, Freewill Baptists, Clergy of any faith, Quakers

22

By 1890 Plains Indians were almost completely wiped out. T/F

True

23

Where were the main National Cemeteries?

Andersonville, Arlington, Gettysburg

24

Where was the largest unidentified Union troops?

Salisbury, SC

25

What were some new deadly weapons that came out during the Civil War?

1) Rifled Muskets
2) Sharp's Carbines
3) Exploding Artillery shells
4) Ammunition

26

When were wooden warships obsolete?

Civil War, ironclad ships were used

27

Why did trench warfare return during the Civil War?

because of the new deadly rifles

28

What were some of the prisoner camps during the Civil War?

Andersonville, Elmira, NY, Camp Johnson by Lake Erie, southern one in Richmond

29

What is the significance of Hugo Grotius?

- Dutch jurist lived from 1583 - 1831
- Wrote De jure belli ac pacis in 1625
- thought there should be moderation in war

30

What is the significance of Carl von Clausewitz?

- Prussian military strategist lived from 1780 - 1831
- Wrote On War
- Implied that a certain proportionality should exist between scale of effort, cost, and risk a state would reasonably accept the value of objectives it intended to receive as a result of the war

31

What is the significance of Francis Lieber?

- 1798 - 1831
- Lieber Code
- Modern secular rationale to war

32

What happened at the first Geneva Convention in 1863?

- Delegates from 16 nations (no US delegate)
- Established the International Red Cross

33

What was the purpose of the Hague Convention in 1907?

- to restrain ever more deadly weapons of war
- banned gas weapons

34

What was the significance of the Geneva Convention in 1929?

Detailed the treatment of prisoners of war

35

What did the Nuremberg Principles establish in 1948?

Established Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity international charges

36

Only Confederates recruited Indians in the American Revolution. T/F

False

37

How accurate were muskets?

Up to 50 yards

38

When are extreme closeups used?

1) love/sex scenes
2) combat, at the point of death

39

What does BCE and ACE stand for?

Before Common Era, After Common Era

40

What is the "Just War" theory?

- war can be justified
- limits of what is ok on the battlefield

41

Where did the Just War theory originate?

Holy Wars

42

When were the earliest Crusades to the Holy Land and who were the enemies?

1000 - 1200, followers of Islam

43

Christian church doctrine that said its not a sin to die/kill in a Holy War, even kids and babies. T/F

True

44

When did religious wars end?

1648, after the 30 Years War

45

What is Manichaeism?

- Mani, born in Baghdad (210 - 276 ACE)
- Life is a struggle between good and evil

46

What was Fredericksburg?

- Terrible Union loss during Civil War
- Charged up a hill across open ground

47

When was the Battle of Gettysburg?

July 1st - 3rd, 1863

48

What happened on the 2nd day of battle at Gettysburg?

the Defense of Little Roundtop

49

What happened on the 3rd day of battle at Gettysburg?

Pickett's Charge

50

Why was General Lee so beloved?

- Never lost a battle prior to Gettysburg
- Pulled off many miracle battles victories

51

Why were there so many deaths in the Civil War?

Lots of deaths because both sides used old 18th Century tactics against 19th Century modern weapons

52

Who was blamed for the loss at Gettysburg?

Longstreet

53

How many soldiers were at Gettysburg?

150,000 combined, with 50,000+ dead

54

How long is a generation?

30 years

55

Who was the superpower of the 19th century?

UK

56

What were the 2 exceptions to the peace from 1815 (Waterloo) to 1914 (WWI)?

1) Battle for Italian Independence
2) Franco-Prussian War

57

When did the Battle for Italian Independence occur?

1859-1861

58

What was significant about the Battle of Solferino?

- Biggest single battle of the 19th century in Europe
- Decisive, climactic
- 30,000 combined casualties
- 200,000 on the battlefield
- One of last wars to have Head of states on the battlefield

59

When did the Battle of Solferino occur?

June 24th, 1859

60

When did the Franco-Prussian War occur?

Summer of 1871

61

What did the Franco-Prussian War do?

Started the hatred boiling over to WWI

62

What was significant about Henri Dunnant?

- Swiss business man
- Witnessed Solferino and spent large amounts of money to help
- Convened in Geneva in 1863 and created the International Red Cross

63

When did Henri Dunnant win the first Nobel Peace Prize?

1901

64

What did the Second Geneva Conventions (1899-1907) ban?

- gas weapons
- dumb dumb bullets
- hallow point bullets
- cannot torture POWs

65

Where is the International Court located?

The Hague, Netherlands created in 1907

66

Which countries experienced the most severe losses in WWI?

Russia, France, Italy, Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary

67

When did Germany declare war on Russia?

August 1st, 1914

68

When did Germany declare war on France?

August 3rd, 1914

69

When and why did the UK declare war on Germany?

August 4th, 1914 following the German invasion of Belgium

70

When was the unofficial christmas truce?

December 24th, 1914

71

When did the Battle of Verdun occur?

started on February 21st, 1916, longest battle of WWI

72

When did the Battle of Jutland, the major naval battle of WWI, occur?

May 31st, 1916

73

When did the Battle of the Somme begin?

July 1st, 1916, tanks are introduced

74

When did the US declare war on Germany?

April 6th, 1917

75

When did Germany sign the armistice at Compiegne, France?

November 11, 1918

76

When was the Treaty of Versailles officially signed?

June 28th, 1919