Flashcards in General Deck (76):
When was the 30 Years War?
1618 - 1648
What is a Limited War?
survival of the nation not in question, usually short
What is a Total War?
- national survival at stake
- usually lasts a long time, more than a year
How many people are estimated to have served in the Revolutionary War?
184,000 - 250,000
How many people served in the War of 1812?
How many people served in the Mexican War?
What were the significant numbers about WWII?
1) highest total personnel
2) highest average duration of service
3) highest percentage of death
4) highest amount of soldiers drafted
Which wars had the least amount of soldiers drafted?
Civil War and Persian Gulf War
Where were soldiers buried after the Battle of Gettysburg?
- Union soldiers buried in National Arlington Cemetery
- Confederates left to rot for weeks
How many people died in Gettysburg?
When was the Gettysburg Address?
November 19th, 1863
What were some changes in warfare following the end of the Age of Religious Wars?
- War could be considered the sport of kings with agreed upon rules
- no formal conference
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
only freed slaves in rebellion states
What amendment abolished slavery?
What was the American Paradox?
most of America's founding fathers had slaves
What is a War of Attrition, a modern total war feature?
- end of the climactic battle
- Lots of deaths
- More than a single battle
- Longer the war went on, the worse the lootings
- military strategy in which a belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Unconditional Surrender became the norm after the Civil War. T/F
What is conscription?
the drafting of soldiers
What was the first war with a draft?
American Civil War
What was the first war with telegrams?
American Civil War
Who was exempt from the draft?
Meninites, Amish, Freewill Baptists, Clergy of any faith, Quakers
By 1890 Plains Indians were almost completely wiped out. T/F
Where were the main National Cemeteries?
Andersonville, Arlington, Gettysburg
Where was the largest unidentified Union troops?
What were some new deadly weapons that came out during the Civil War?
1) Rifled Muskets
2) Sharp's Carbines
3) Exploding Artillery shells
When were wooden warships obsolete?
Civil War, ironclad ships were used
Why did trench warfare return during the Civil War?
because of the new deadly rifles
What were some of the prisoner camps during the Civil War?
Andersonville, Elmira, NY, Camp Johnson by Lake Erie, southern one in Richmond
What is the significance of Hugo Grotius?
- Dutch jurist lived from 1583 - 1831
- Wrote De jure belli ac pacis in 1625
- thought there should be moderation in war
What is the significance of Carl von Clausewitz?
- Prussian military strategist lived from 1780 - 1831
- Wrote On War
- Implied that a certain proportionality should exist between scale of effort, cost, and risk a state would reasonably accept the value of objectives it intended to receive as a result of the war
What is the significance of Francis Lieber?
- 1798 - 1831
- Lieber Code
- Modern secular rationale to war
What happened at the first Geneva Convention in 1863?
- Delegates from 16 nations (no US delegate)
- Established the International Red Cross
What was the purpose of the Hague Convention in 1907?
- to restrain ever more deadly weapons of war
- banned gas weapons
What was the significance of the Geneva Convention in 1929?
Detailed the treatment of prisoners of war
What did the Nuremberg Principles establish in 1948?
Established Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity international charges
Only Confederates recruited Indians in the American Revolution. T/F
How accurate were muskets?
Up to 50 yards
When are extreme closeups used?
1) love/sex scenes
2) combat, at the point of death
What does BCE and ACE stand for?
Before Common Era, After Common Era
What is the "Just War" theory?
- war can be justified
- limits of what is ok on the battlefield
Where did the Just War theory originate?
When were the earliest Crusades to the Holy Land and who were the enemies?
1000 - 1200, followers of Islam
Christian church doctrine that said its not a sin to die/kill in a Holy War, even kids and babies. T/F
When did religious wars end?
1648, after the 30 Years War
What is Manichaeism?
- Mani, born in Baghdad (210 - 276 ACE)
- Life is a struggle between good and evil
What was Fredericksburg?
- Terrible Union loss during Civil War
- Charged up a hill across open ground
When was the Battle of Gettysburg?
July 1st - 3rd, 1863
What happened on the 2nd day of battle at Gettysburg?
the Defense of Little Roundtop
What happened on the 3rd day of battle at Gettysburg?
Why was General Lee so beloved?
- Never lost a battle prior to Gettysburg
- Pulled off many miracle battles victories
Why were there so many deaths in the Civil War?
Lots of deaths because both sides used old 18th Century tactics against 19th Century modern weapons
Who was blamed for the loss at Gettysburg?
How many soldiers were at Gettysburg?
150,000 combined, with 50,000+ dead
How long is a generation?
Who was the superpower of the 19th century?
What were the 2 exceptions to the peace from 1815 (Waterloo) to 1914 (WWI)?
1) Battle for Italian Independence
2) Franco-Prussian War
When did the Battle for Italian Independence occur?
What was significant about the Battle of Solferino?
- Biggest single battle of the 19th century in Europe
- Decisive, climactic
- 30,000 combined casualties
- 200,000 on the battlefield
- One of last wars to have Head of states on the battlefield
When did the Battle of Solferino occur?
June 24th, 1859
When did the Franco-Prussian War occur?
Summer of 1871
What did the Franco-Prussian War do?
Started the hatred boiling over to WWI
What was significant about Henri Dunnant?
- Swiss business man
- Witnessed Solferino and spent large amounts of money to help
- Convened in Geneva in 1863 and created the International Red Cross
When did Henri Dunnant win the first Nobel Peace Prize?
What did the Second Geneva Conventions (1899-1907) ban?
- gas weapons
- dumb dumb bullets
- hallow point bullets
- cannot torture POWs
Where is the International Court located?
The Hague, Netherlands created in 1907
Which countries experienced the most severe losses in WWI?
Russia, France, Italy, Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary
When did Germany declare war on Russia?
August 1st, 1914
When did Germany declare war on France?
August 3rd, 1914
When and why did the UK declare war on Germany?
August 4th, 1914 following the German invasion of Belgium
When was the unofficial christmas truce?
December 24th, 1914
When did the Battle of Verdun occur?
started on February 21st, 1916, longest battle of WWI
When did the Battle of Jutland, the major naval battle of WWI, occur?
May 31st, 1916
When did the Battle of the Somme begin?
July 1st, 1916, tanks are introduced
When did the US declare war on Germany?
April 6th, 1917
When did Germany sign the armistice at Compiegne, France?
November 11, 1918