Flashcards in General Aircraft & Operational Considerations Deck (49):
What are the 8 documents required on board an aircraft?
Airworthiness (certificate of “" and accordance)
Radio operators certificate
Registration (certificate of reg, and match COA)
Operators handbook (POH)
Weight and balance
Insurance (liability insurance)
Licenses (PPL and medical)
When do you need the Aircraft Radio Station License?
When flying outside of Canada
Who can ask to see your permits or licenses?
1. Transport Canada Officials
2. Peace Officers
3. Immigration Officers
What are 7 conditions that must be met for the aircraft’s certificate of airworthiness to be valid?
1. Weight limit not exceeded
2. Load must be properly distributed
3. Cargo and equip secured for easy passenger exit
4. Required emergency equipment on board
5. Compliance with airworthiness Directives (AD) including maintenance and inspections
6. After maintenance, plane must have maintenance release signed off in logbook
7. Certificate of aiworthiness on board and proper category aircraft may operate (usually standard)
A specific purpose flight permit may be issued for what 5 purposes?
1. Ferry flights for repairs or maintenance
2. Importation or exportation flights
3. Demonstration, market survey, or crew training
4. Test purposes following repair, mods, or maint.
5. Other purposes as determined by minister of transport
What is the difference between flight time and air time?
Flight time is from when the aircraft moves under own power to when it stops, air time is takeoff-landing
What Canadian Aircraft must carry liability insurance?
All private and commercial aircraft are required to carry liability insurance
How do you stay current as a Private Pilot
Every 5 years
Every Two Years
Every six months
Every 5 years
Fly as PIC or co-pilot at least once in category in which they are licensed.
Every Two Years
Complete one of the following recurrent training activity:
-complete flight review with instructor
-Attend transport Canada safety seminar
-Participate in TC recurrrent training program
-Complete pilot proficiency check (PPC)
-Complete requirements of issue or renewal of license, permit or rating
-Complete the written exam for license, perfmit, or rating
Every six months
Complete at least 5 takeoffs and five landings in category and class of aircraft in order to carry passengers
What should you be aware of when adding detergent oil to a non-detergent oil engine and vice versa?
Never add detergent oil to a non-detergent oil engine.
Only add non-detergent oil to a detergent oil engine in case of emergency
What are three points to be aware of when using an engine primer?
1. Must be used in accordance with POH
2. Overpriming will increase possibility of engine fire during start
3. Primer must be locked in place or it could draw fuel through priming system enriching the fuel/air mixutre and cause engine roughness or failure
How do you calculate useful load?
It is the maximum permissible weight subtracted by the basic empty weight
What are the three reasons that weight and balance limitations are imposed for the following principal reasons?
1. Effect of the disposition of weight (and subsequently balance) on the flight characteristics of the aircraft, particularly on stall and spin recoveries, slow flight, and stability
2. Effect of weight on primary and secondary aircraft structures
3. Effect of weight on take-off and landing performance
What are the 4 key items of information available on the weight and balance report?
1. Empty weight
2. Balance Datum.
This is the point where all the calculations are referenced to. Usually forward of COG so that usefull load is all aft of it
3. Centre of Gravity
In inches from balance datum
4. Moment arm
Distance in inches from Balance datum to item load COG or overall COG
What are the three steps to computing the weight and balance factors?
1. Find Balance moment of empty airfract by
(empty weight)*(Moment arm of aircraft)
2. Balance moment of each item of load is:
(item weight)*(respective item location moment arm)
3. New Centre of Gravity found by:
(sum of balance moments)/(total weight of aircraft)
The computational point on the plane where all weight is acting through is called?
The centre of Gravity
The point on the plane where all lift forces act through for computational purposes is?
Centre of Pressure
What does Bernouillii’s theorem indicate?
As the velocity of air increases, it’s pressure decreases.
So air is forced over the wing quickly, creating low pressure above the wing
What is the angle of incidence?
It is the fixed angle between the plane of the wing chord and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. It is fixed, it is not the angle of attack
What is the boundary layer?
Thin layer of air taht flows over the surface of a wing in flight
What are the two parts to the boundary layer?
1. Laminar Layer (desirable smooth layer)
2. Turbulent layer (undesirable turbulent layer)
As angle of attack increases, the boundary layer becomes more turbulent
How are wing tip vortices formed?
They are formed by the relatively higher pressure air below the wing escaping over to the lower pressure above. So this creates the spiral
How does aspect ratio affect induced drag, and what does a high aspect ratio look like?
The higher the aspect ratio, the less induced drag their will be.
So an example of a high aspect ratio is a glider wing, where a low aspect ratio is a fat aerobatic wing.
What 5 things cause adverse yaw?
1. Aileron Drag
2. Gyroscpic Precession
4. Slipstream effect
5. Asymmetric Thrust
What is aileron drag?
causes adverse yaw because when the ailerons are used in a turn, the one that is causing more lift on the wing also causes more induced drag, and the other wing has less induced drag. So this creates unintentional yaw
What are two aileron designs that are supposed to minimize adverse yaw?
1. Differential ailerons
When one goes up, the downgoing one has a smaller angle than the upgoiing one
2. Frise Ailerons
So for this one, the nose of the upgoing aileron bites into the airflow increasing drag.
How does gyroscopic precession affect the plane overall?
It creates a left hand yaw tendency because when a force is applied to spinning object, the resultant feedback force is 90 degrees from it. So when a tailwing aircraft lifts the tail off the ground to take off, there is an initial force at the top of the propeller, spin cycle, but the resultant force is to the right of the middle of the prop, resulting in a left hand turning tendency
How does torque create a left hand turning tendency?
Well the propellor is spinning one way, and so Newtons third law says the plane will want to spin the other way. This digs the left wheel into the ground more, which creates drag and so the plane yaws to the left.
How does slipstream cause left yaw?
The prop creates a “slipstream” that buffets the side of the plane to create a left yaw
How does asymmetric Thrust cause left yaw?
When a plane is at a high angle of attack, the down going prop side on the right side of cockpit has higher angle of attack which produces more thrust than the upward moving blade on the left. So it yaws to the left
What are the 4 advantages of flaps?
1. stall speed decrease
2. Steeper landing approach without greater airspeed
3. Better forward visibility on landing
4. Take off can be shortened
The stability of an aircrapft concerns what three planes of rotation?
What is a design feature that provides lateral stability?
“rolling” stability can be improved with dihedral wings. This is where the wings have an upward angle on the plane. So if the upper part of the wing starts slipping in turbulent air or something, the bottom of the wing produces more lift and corrects for it.
What has the greatest influence on longitudinal stability?
position of centre of gravity
How is longitudinal stability corrected?
“pitching” stability is correct by having a horizontal and vertical stabilizer comprising the tail far away from centre of gravity. This distance creates huge leverage meaning a small change to the tail with produce a large correcting moment
How do you correct for directional stability?
So this is yaw stability, and is corrected through the vertical stabilizer mostly
What does a load factor of 3 mean?
Means that the totla laod on an aircrafts structure is 3 times its gross weight
What are load factors expressed as?
So 3 Gs, etc
What are two distinct reasons load factors are important?
1. structural overload can be imposed upon an aircraft
2. Load factor increases the stall speed making stalls possible at seemingly safe airspeeds
How can an aircraft be stalled at a high speed?
Any aircraft can be stalled at any airspeed. This is important to know because you may be going well above the normal stall speed, but if you increase the load factor in a spin or steep turn etc, then you can stall even at high speeds!
What are aerodromes listed in the CFS that are not certified as airports called?
At certified public use aerodromes, how will a dry standard wind direction indicator react to wind speeds as follows:
10kt+ 5 degree below horizontal
6kt+ 30 Degrees below horizontal
At airports where holding positions are not established, how far should an aircraft hold short from the edge of a runway in use?
200 feet (61 metres)
What is the informal term “runway button” mean?
It refers to the position at the end/beginning of runway where an aircraft positions to take-off with the intention of having the full length available to it
Can an ATC unit suggest special VFR?
No, they can only indicate when weather minimums have turned into IFR, and it is the pilot’s duty to request special VFR.
When must special VFR be obtained?
Prior to operating or entering a control zone
What are the 4 types of white-out?
1. Overcast White out
2. Water Fog White-out
3. Blowing Snow White-out
4. Precipitation White-out
What is overcast white-out?
It is when there is a uniform cloud cover over a snow covered surface which diffuses the light and makes the horizon completely dissappear. This disorients the pilot
What is Water fog white-out?
Clouds containing supercooled water droplets can contact with the cold snow surface which affects both vertical and horzontal visibility as the size and distribution of the water droplets suspended in the air block vision