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Flashcards in General Endocrine Deck (49):
1

Neuroendocrine Tumors
(Origin)

Kulchitsky and enterochromaffin-like cells

2

Neuroendocrine Tumors
(Examples)

- Thyroid: medullary carcinoma
- Lung: small cell carcinoma
- Pancreas: islet cell tumor
- Adrenals: pheochromocytoma
- Peripheral nervous system: schwannoma, paraganglioma, and neuroblastoma
- Skin: Merkel cell carcinoma
- Inherited tumors: MEN 1, MEN 2, von-Hippel-Lindau disease, NF type 1, tuberous sclerosis and Carney's complex (LAMB and NAME syndromes)

3

Neuroendocrine Tumors
(Other name)

- APUD tumors
- These cells contain amine-precursor uptake decarboxylase (APUD)
- Secrete different hormones

4

Neuroendocrine Tumors
(Markers)

- 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)
- Neuron-specific enolase (NSE, gamma gamma dimer)
- Chromogranin A (present in 99% of metastatic carcinoid tumors)
- Synaptophysin (major synaptic vesicle protein p38)

5

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 (MEN 1)
(Factoids)

- Autosomal dominant
- Also known as Werner syndrome
- 3 Ps: Pituitary tumors (prolactin or GH), Pancreas (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, insulinoma, VIPomas, and glucagonomas), Parathyroid adenomas
- Associated with mutation of MEN1 gene (a tumor suppressor gene on chrom. 11 which encodes for menin)

6

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2A (MEN 2A)
(Factoids)

- Autosomal dominant
- Also known as Sipple syndrome
- 2 Ps: Parathyroid hyperplasia, Pheochromocytoma, and Medullary thyroid carcinoma (neoplasm of parafollicular or C cells and secrets calcitonin)
- Associated with mutation of RET gene (encodes for receptor tyrosine kinase in cells of neural crest origin)

7

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B (MEN 2B)
(Factoids)

- Autosomal dominant
- Also known as Wagenmann-Froboese syndrome
- 1 P:Pheochromocytoma, Medullary thyroid carcinoma (neoplasm of parafollicular or C cells and secrets calcitonin), and mucocutaneous neuromas (ganglioneuromas or neurofibromas)
- Associated with marfanoid habitus and mutation of RET gene (encodes for receptor tyrosine kinase in cells of neural crest origin)

8

FSH and LH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

9

ACTH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

10

TSH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

11

CRH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

12

hCG
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

13

ADH (V2-receptors)
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

14

MSH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

15

PTH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

16

Calcitonin
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

17

GHRH
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

18

Glucagon
(Signaling Pathway)

cAMP

19

BNP
(Signaling Pathway)

cGMP

20

ANP
(Signaling Pathway)

cGMP

21

Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF [NO])
(Signaling Pathway)

cGMP

22

ADH (V1-receptors)
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

23

GnRH
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

24

Oxytocin
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

25

TRH
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

26

Histamine (H1-receptors)
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

27

Angiotensin II
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

28

Gastrin
(Signaling Pathway)

IP3

29

Progesterone
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

30

Estrogen
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

31

Testosterone
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

32

Cortisol
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

33

Aldosterone
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

34

T3/T4
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

35

Vitamin D
(Signaling Pathway)

Intracellular receptor

36

Insulin
(Signaling Pathway)

Receptor tyrosine kinase (Mitogen activated protein [MAP] kinase pathway)

37

Insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1)
(Signaling Pathway)

Receptor tyrosine kinase (Mitogen activated protein [MAP] kinase pathway)

38

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
(Signaling Pathway)

Receptor tyrosine kinase (Mitogen activated protein [MAP] kinase pathway)

39

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
(Signaling Pathway)

Receptor tyrosine kinase (Mitogen activated protein [MAP] kinase pathway)

40

Endothelial growth factor (EGF)
(Signaling Pathway)

Receptor tyrosine kinase (Mitogen activated protein [MAP] kinase pathway)

41

Prolactin
(Signaling Pathway)

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
* JAK is Janus kinase
* STAT is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

42

Immunomodulators (like cytokines IL-2, IL-6 and IFN)
(Signaling Pathway)

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
* JAK is Janus kinase
* STAT is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

43

GH
(Signaling Pathway)

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
* JAK is Janus kinase
* STAT is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

44

Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF)
(Signaling Pathway)

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
* JAK is Janus kinase
* STAT is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

45

Eryhthropoietin
(Signaling Pathway)

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
* JAK is Janus kinase
* STAT is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

46

Thrombopoietin
(Signaling Pathway)

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT pathway)
* JAK is Janus kinase
* STAT is Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

47

Increased sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in men
(Effect)

Lowers free testosterone ----> gynecomastia

48

Decreased sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in women
(Effect)

Raises free testosterone ----> hirsutism

49

Sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
(Increasing Factors)

- OCPs
- Pregnancy