Flashcards in General Infectious disease Deck (32):
which infections are airborne spread?
measles, VZV, tuberculosis
which infections are spread via contact
influenza, mumps, N meningitidis, pertussis
what are the infections spread vertically?
O= other e.g. VZV, syphillis, chlamydia
H= Herpes simplex
+ Hep B, HIV, group b strep
what infectious differentials might you think for a purpuric rash?
3. subacute bacterial endocarditis
what is the natural hx of a viral URTI?
Starts off with a sore throat and sniffles, before developing a dry cough. Overtime the cough becomes wet and then after 2 weeks the virus is cleared. Bacterial on the other hand usually starts off with a productive cough without a prodrome
What is the definition of PUO?
Fever greater than 38.3 degrees on several occasions
Duration of fever- 3 days in patient; 3 outpatient clinic appts
Uncertain diagnosis despite investigation
what do you would you think if you saw dark uine
when might we see reactivation of varicella zoster virus? i.e. shingles?
what pathogen causes leptospirosis? how is infection obtained?
Some features of leptospirosis?
Spirochaetes cause leptospirosis
Infection is drinking contaminated water (containing urine from infected animals)
Fevers, night sweats, headache, anorexia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, occasional meningitism and rash
what causes Q fever? how do we ix it?
need to immunofluorescence assay as they don't grow on culture medium (obligate intracellular organism)
What pathogen causes lyme disease?
what pathogen causes leprosy?
acid fast mycobacterium leprae
what bacteria should we see under microscopy for a swab of neisseria gonorrhoea?
gram negative intracellular diploccoci
what pathogen causes syphillis?
what is a hallmark feature of secondary syphillis?
maculopapular rash that is not itchy, found on palms of hands and in the feet. Can be also widespread over the body
what are the two tests we order for syphillis?Which do we look at when looking the efficacy of treatment?
1. treponema EIA (specific- looking for IgM)
2. Cardiolipin (non specific)--> look at this one. can become negative with treatment.
The EIA stays positive for life
how do we treat primary or secondary syphillis?
IM benzathine penicillin
what viruses are part of the herpeviridae family?
HSV 1 and 2
what is a hallmark feature of herpeviridae viruses?
the ability to remain latent and reactivate later in life
chickenpox in an immunocompromised individual- what prophylaxis medications can we prescribe?
ZIG infusion (zoster immunoglobulin)
where does CMV lay latent in the body?
T lymphocytes and arterial endothelium
treatment of CMV?
where does EBV remain latent in the body?
memory B lymphocytes
what virus is associated with kaposi sarcoma?
herpe virus type 8
yellow fever is caused by what?
how do we diagnose EBV from blood film/biopsy?
special stain for EBV
what is the lifecycle of schistosomiasis?
• The parasite can penetrate the skin --> enter the bloodstream--> migrate through lungs and liver.
• They then produce lots of eggs which ulcerate through the intestine and bladder to be excreted into the faeces or with urine.
Urine and faeces contaminate freshwater ways and leads to further infection to other individuals
what type of parasite is schistosomiasis?
risk factors for candidiasis?
-iatrogenic- TPN, blood transfusions, lines
how do we treat infectious mononucleosis?
• Mostly supportive management
Give IVIG and steroids in the case of ITP
how do we dx infectious mononucleosis
• Blood film looking for atypical leukocytosis
• EBV specific antibodies
• PCR EBV DNA
Heterophile antibody Monospot test