General Infectious disease Flashcards Preview

Core conditions Olivia MD > General Infectious disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Infectious disease Deck (32):
1

which infections are airborne spread?

measles, VZV, tuberculosis

2

which infections are spread via contact

influenza, mumps, N meningitidis, pertussis

3

what are the infections spread vertically?

TORCH infections-
T= toxoplasma
O= other e.g. VZV, syphillis, chlamydia
R= Rubella
C= CMV
H= Herpes simplex

+ Hep B, HIV, group b strep

4

what infectious differentials might you think for a purpuric rash?

1. Meningoccoccal
2.staph bacteremia
3. subacute bacterial endocarditis

5

what is the natural hx of a viral URTI?

Starts off with a sore throat and sniffles, before developing a dry cough. Overtime the cough becomes wet and then after 2 weeks the virus is cleared. Bacterial on the other hand usually starts off with a productive cough without a prodrome

6

What is the definition of PUO?

Fever greater than 38.3 degrees on several occasions

Duration of fever- 3 days in patient; 3 outpatient clinic appts

Uncertain diagnosis despite investigation

7

what do you would you think if you saw dark uine

rhabdo; jaundice;,haemolysis

8

when might we see reactivation of varicella zoster virus? i.e. shingles?

immunsuppressed patients
malignancy

9

what pathogen causes leptospirosis? how is infection obtained?
Some features of leptospirosis?

Spirochaetes cause leptospirosis

Infection is drinking contaminated water (containing urine from infected animals)

Fevers, night sweats, headache, anorexia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, occasional meningitism and rash

10

what causes Q fever? how do we ix it?

Coxiella burnetti

need to immunofluorescence assay as they don't grow on culture medium (obligate intracellular organism)

11

What pathogen causes lyme disease?

spirochaete borrelia

12

what pathogen causes leprosy?

acid fast mycobacterium leprae

13

what bacteria should we see under microscopy for a swab of neisseria gonorrhoea?

gram negative intracellular diploccoci

14

what pathogen causes syphillis?

treponema pallidus

15

what is a hallmark feature of secondary syphillis?

maculopapular rash that is not itchy, found on palms of hands and in the feet. Can be also widespread over the body

16

what are the two tests we order for syphillis?Which do we look at when looking the efficacy of treatment?

1. treponema EIA (specific- looking for IgM)
2. Cardiolipin (non specific)--> look at this one. can become negative with treatment.

The EIA stays positive for life

17

how do we treat primary or secondary syphillis?

IM benzathine penicillin

18

what viruses are part of the herpeviridae family?

VZV
CMV
EBV
HSV 1 and 2

19

what is a hallmark feature of herpeviridae viruses?

the ability to remain latent and reactivate later in life

20

chickenpox in an immunocompromised individual- what prophylaxis medications can we prescribe?

ZIG infusion (zoster immunoglobulin)
acyclovir

21

where does CMV lay latent in the body?

T lymphocytes and arterial endothelium

22

treatment of CMV?

gancyclovir

23

where does EBV remain latent in the body?

memory B lymphocytes

24

what virus is associated with kaposi sarcoma?

herpe virus type 8

25

yellow fever is caused by what?

flavivirus

26

how do we diagnose EBV from blood film/biopsy?

special stain for EBV

27

what is the lifecycle of schistosomiasis?

• The parasite can penetrate the skin --> enter the bloodstream--> migrate through lungs and liver.
• They then produce lots of eggs which ulcerate through the intestine and bladder to be excreted into the faeces or with urine.
Urine and faeces contaminate freshwater ways and leads to further infection to other individuals

28

what type of parasite is schistosomiasis?

flukeworm

29

risk factors for candidiasis?

-immunosuppression
-iatrogenic- TPN, blood transfusions, lines
-recent surgery
-malnutrition

30

how do we treat infectious mononucleosis?

• Mostly supportive management
Give IVIG and steroids in the case of ITP

31

how do we dx infectious mononucleosis

• Blood film looking for atypical leukocytosis
• FBE
• EBV specific antibodies
• PCR EBV DNA
Heterophile antibody Monospot test

32

what are some clinical features of glandular fever?

• Generalised/cervical lymphadenopathy
• Pharyngitis
• Splenomegaly
• Malaise
Fever
+ rash after penicillin administration