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Flashcards in General Neuroanatomy Deck (184):
1

The spinal cord extends from the ___ to the __ (in adults, in infants)

in adults: foramen magnum to inner space between L1 and L2 (in infants, L2-L3)

2

Why is the spinal cord shorter than the vertebral column?

During development, the vertebral bones grow at a faster rate than the spinal cord that grows within it.

3

What space contains CSF?

subarachnoid space

4

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31

5

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

6

Where is the cervical enlargement?

From the fourth cervical spinal segment to the first thoracic spinal segment

7

Why does the cord enlarge at cervical levels?

Spinal nerves come off to form the brachial plexus

8

Why does the cord enlarge at lumbo-sacral levels?

Spinal nerves come off to form lumbosacral plexus

9

The cord becomes continuous with the brainstem just as it passes through the ___

foramen magnum

10

What are the components of the brainstem?

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain (mesencephalon)

11

True or False: The spinal cord is continuous with the brainstem.

True

12

True or False: The cerebellum is part of the brainstem.

False. Though the cerebellum is attached to the dorsal surface of the brainstem, it is not a part of the stem.

13

Which four cranial nerves arise from the medulla?

IX (glosspharyngeal), X (Vagal), XI (spinal accessory), XII (hypoglossal)

14

Which four cranial nerves arise from the pons?

V (trigeminal), VI (abducens), VII (facial), VIII (vestibulo-cochlear/auditory)

15

How many cranial nerves does it take to move your eyes around?

3

16

What is the only cranial nerve that emerges from the posterior surface of the brainstem?

Trochlear (IV)

17

Which cranial nerves arise from the mesencephalon?

III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear)

18

Where is the lumbosacral enlargement?

Between the second lumbar and third sacral spinal segments

19

What two arteries provide arterial blood supply to the brain?

Internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries

20

What 3 arteries supply arterial blood to the cerebrum?

anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries

21

What 3 arteries supply arterial blood to the cerebellum?

superior, anterior inferior and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries

22

What 6 arteries contribute to arterial blood supply to the brainstem?

superior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar arteries, posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, pontine branches of the basilar artery, posteromedial group of central arteries, posterolateral group of central arteries

23

What 5 veins comprise the superficial group of cerebral veins that drain cortical and adjacent subcortical regions?

superior cerebral veins, superior middle cerebral veins, superior anastomotic vein (of Trolard), inferior anastomotic vein (of Labbe), inferior cerebral veins

24

What 3 arteries supply the spinal cord with oxygenated blood?

anterior and two posterior spinal arteries

25

What 3 veins drain the spinal cord? Where do these drain into?

posterior spinal, posterolateral spinal and anterior spinal vein, drain into anterior and posterior radicular veins

26

Which bones of the skull comprise the orbit?

Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, ethmoid, lacrimal

27

WHich bones comprise the anterior cranial fossa?

Frontal, ethmoid (cribiform plate), sphenoid (body and lesser wing)

28

Which bones comprise the middle cranial fossa?

sphenoid (greater wing), temporal, parietal

29

Name 6 important foramina associated with the middle cranial fossa

optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen spinosum, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum, carotid canal

30

Which lobes are housed in the anterior cranial fossa?

Frontal lobes

31

Which lobes are house din the middle cranial fossa?

Temporal lobes (approximately)

32

Which bones comprise the posterior cranial fossa?

Temporal, occipital, parietal

33

Name 4 important foramina associated with the posterior cranial fossa

foramen magnum, hypoglossal canal, jugular foramen, internal acoustic meatus

34

Which cranial fossa are cerebellar hemispheres located?

Posterior cranial fossa

35

Which bones articulate at the atlanto-occipital joint?

occipital condyles of skull articulates with C1

36

What actions occur at the atlanto-occipital joint?

flexion and extension movement of head and some lateral movement of head

37

What actions occur at the atlanto-axial joint?

contributes to head rotation

38

What contributes to the atlanto-axial joint?

skull and atlas move around pivot joint between the odontoid process (dens) of the axis and the ring formed by the transverse ligament of the atlas

39

Which ligament holds the dense of the axis in place

transverse ligament of the atlas

40

What type of joint is the atlanto-axial joint?

pivot

41

Which bones articulate at the TMJ?

the condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

42

Which muscles contribute to protrusion of the mandible?

lateral pterygoid assisted by medial pterygoid

43

Which muscles contribute to retraction of the mandible?

temporalis, masseter, geniohyoid and digastric

44

Which muscles contribute to elevation of the mandible?

temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid

45

Which muscles contribute to depression of the mandible?

gravity, digastric, geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles

46

Which nerve innervates all the muscles of mastication?

trigeminal nerve (CN V), specifically the mandibular branch (V3)

47

name four structures that pass through the jugular foramen

internal jugular vein, CN IX, X, XI

48

triangle: internal carotid arteries

anterior

49

triangle: external carotid arteries

anterior

50

triangle: internal jugular vein

anterior

51

triangle: CN VII

anterior

52

triangle: CN IX

anterior

53

triangle: CN X

anterior

54

triangle: CN XI

anterior (SCM) and posterior (trapezius)

55

triangle: CN XIII

anterior

56

triangle: external jugular vein

posterior

57

triangle: phrenic nerve

posterior

58

triangle: brachial plexus (proximal part)

posterior

59

Which ventricle is associated with the diencephalon?

third

60

What three structures are connected to the cerebellum?

pons, medulla, mesencephalon

61

Which ventricle is associated with the medulla and pons?

fourth

62

What are the four components of the diencephalon?

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus

63

What is the function of the thalamus?

processes sensory & motor information UP to cerebral cortex

64

WHere does the lateral geniculate body receive input? What is this nuclear group involved with?

gets input from optic tract, involved with vision

65

Fcn: frontal lobe

motor control

66

Fcn: pre-frontal area

judgement, plan of action, memory

67

Fcn: precentral gyrus

primary motor cortex

68

fcn: parietal lobe

somatosensation, integration of sensory information

69

fcn: postcentral gyrus

primary sensory cortex

70

fcn: occipital lobe

vision & processing visual information

71

fcn: temporal lobe

receiving and processing auditory information, speech, olfaction, limbic system

72

What comprises gray matter

collections of neurons and the synapses formed on them

73

What comprises white matter

myelinated axons

74

True or False: There is a decreasing amount of white matter as one ascends the cord.

False. THere is an increasing amount of white matter as one ascends the cord.

75

True or False: In the adult, the central canal of the adult spinal cord is continuous with the ventricular system.

False. In the adult spinal cord, the central canal is not continuous with the ventricular system of the brain, as it was during development.

76

What type of cells line the central canal of the spinal cord?

Ependymal cells

77

What does the posterior intermediate sulcus separate?

the gracile and cuneate fascicles

78

Define: funiculus

in the white matter, a funiculus consists simply of a group of tracts, ascending, descending, or both ascending & descending

79

Define: tracts

composed of bundles of axons

80

What is the antero-lateral funiculus?

In some classifications, the lateral and ventral funiculi are considered to be a single structure, the antero-lateral funiculus.

81

Which tract extends the full length of the spinal cord: gracile or cuneate?

Gracile

82

Where is fasciculate cuneatus present (what spinal levels)?

Cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord levels

83

What is the posterolateral tract?

Intrinsic spinal tract consisting of small fibers traveling short distances cranially or caudally within the spinal cord. These fibers arise from neurons in the spinal ganglia or posterior horn.

84

What is included in the lateral funiculus?

posterior part: lateral corticospinal and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
anterior part: lateral (medullary) reticulospinal, lateral spinothalamic, spinorecticular and anterior spinocerebellar tracts

85

In which funiculus (anterior, lateral or posterior) is the posterior fasciculus proprius?

Posterior funiculus

86

What is included in the anterior funiculus?

ascending: anterior spinothalmic tract
intrinsic: anterior fasciculus proprius
descending: anterior corticospinal, lateral and medial vestibulospinal and medial (ponto-) reticulospinal tracts

87

What are nuclei? What are they involved with?

Nerve cell bodies and the axon terminals which synapse on them. Involved with information processing.

88

What three structures are included in the central cord?

Central canal, spinal lamina X, gray and white commissures

89

Projection interneurons from which laminae are the origin of contralateral spinothalmic and spinoreticular tracts?

Lamina I and V

90

In the cervical and lumbosacral enlargements, the medial neuron nuclei innervate the muscles of the __ and lateral nuclei innervate ___ muscles.

Trunk, limb

91

Where along the spinal cord is the substantia gelatinosa Rolandi found?

Entire spinal cord

92

What sensations synapse on the substantia gelatinosa?

Pain and temperature

93

What is the functino of the substantia gelatinosa?

Processes incoming pain sensations, but does not give rise to axons conveying sensory information to higher levels.

94

True or False: incoming fibers conveying pain and temp can synapse on the dendrites of neurons in the nucleus proprius which extend into the substantia gelatinosa

True

95

Where along the spinal cord is the nucleus proprius found?

Entire spinal cord

96

Neurons comprising the nucleus proprius give rise to axons which cross the cord where? Ascend in what tracts?

in the ventral white commissure; ascend in spinothalmic tracts

97

Where along the spinal cord is the nucleus dorsalis (Clarke's column) found?

Thoracic and upper lumbar regions (C8 to L3)

98

Neurons in the nucleus dorsalis ascend the cord ipsi/contralaterally in the ____ tract.

ipsilaterally, dorsal spinocerebellar tract

99

The spinocerebellar tract conveys ____ information from the _____ to the ____ (in the case of nucleus dorsalis)

proprioceptive; lower limb and trunk, cerebellum

100

Where is the interomedial cell column (lateral horn) found?

Thoracic and upper lumbar regions. (T1-L3)

101

What arises from the lateral horn?

sympathetic preganglionic motor neurons; axons enter the ventral root and then enter the sympathetic chain of ganglia via the white ramus communicans

102

What type of neurons are located in the lateral horn? What are they called? What do they innervate?

intermediolateral nucleis; visceral motor neurons of the sympathetic nervous system; innervate sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla

103

Where are ventral horn motor neurons located along the spinal cord?

Entire SC

104

IN the thoracic cord, only a medial/lateral nuclear group of ventral horn motor neurons is found.

Medial

105

The nuclei in the lateral part of the intermediate zone of the sacral spinal cord (S2-S4) contains

visceral motor neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system; innervate pelvic parasympathetic ganglia

106

Does the fasciculus gracilis extend the entire length of the spinal cord? The fasciculus cuneatus?

FG - yes
FC - mid-thoracic level of the cord upward

107

Where are the cells of origin located for the dorsal spinocerebellar tract?

ipsilaterally at the nucleus dorsalis

108

The dorsal spinocerebellar tract is uncrossed/crossed while the ventral spinocerebellar tract is uncrossed/crossed.

dorsal - uncrossed
ventral - crossed

109

Where are the cells of origin located for the ventral spinocerebellar tract?

contralaterally at the base of the dorsal horn of the spinal grey

110

The dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts convey what type of information?

proprioceptive information from lower limb to the cerebellum

111

The dorsal spinocerebellar tract enters the cerebellum via the

inferior cerebellar peduncle

112

The ventral spinocerebellar tract enters the cerebellum via the

superior cerebellar peduncle

113

What is the difference between the region of input to lateral spinothalamic tract vs ventral spinothalamic tract?

input to neurons whose axons form the lateral tract is derived from dorsal root ganglion cells within a segement or two away; input to neurons whose axons form the ventral tract may receive input from dorsal root ganglion cells many segments removed

114

What type of sensory information is carried by the lateral spinothalamic tract?

pain and temperature

115

What type of sensory information is carried by the ventral spinothalamic tract?

light touch

116

The lateral and ventral spinothalamic tracts are crossed/uncrossed

crossed

117

How far does the ventral corticospinal tract extend?

only as far as the upper thoracic cord

118

Where do the pyramidal tract fibers of the lateral corticospinal tract cross?

pyramidal decussation in the medulla

119

Where does the ventral corticospinal tract cross?

uncrossed in the cord, ultimately cross at cord level in ventral white commissure

120

Most of the arterial blood flowing through the anterior and posterior spinal arteries is derived from the

anterior and posterior radicular arteries, segmental arteries

121

Arterial blood from the vertebral arteries flowing through the spinal arteries supplies only what area of the SC?

upper cervical cord

122

Describe the venous drainage of the spinal cord

The spinal veins drain into the anterior and psoterior radicular veins

123

True or False: the anterior spinal artery extends the entire length of the spinal cord

True

124

Where does the anterior spinal artery receive its blood supply?

from the vertebral arteries and spinal branches of segmental arteries (from the descending aorta)

125

What syndrome is caused by occlusion of the anterior spinal artery?

anterior cord syndrome

126

What are the functions of the cervical spinal column?

support the head, allow movement of the head, protect spinal cord

127

The body of a cervical vertebrae is small/large relative to other typical vertebrae.

small

128

the vertebral arch of a cervical vertebra is small/large relative to other typical vertebrae.

large

129

what passes through the foramen transversarium of cervical vertebrae?

vertebral artery

130

True or False: cervical spinous processes are often bifid.

True

131

What part of the vertebrae contains the spinal cord?

Vertebral foramen

132

The superior articular facet of the atlas articulates with the

occipital condyle

133

What does the atlas possess in place of a spinous process?

Posterior tubercle

134

The posterior articular facet of the dens of the axis contains a groove for the

transverse atlantal ligament

135

What major movements occur at cervical vertebral joints?

flexion and lateral flexion

136

What movements occur at the atlanto-occipital joint?

flexion and extension of neck; nodding of head

137

What type of joint is the atlanto-occipital joint?

Hinge-like

138

What movements occur at the atlanto-axial joint?

rotation of the neck; "no"

139

What type of joint is the median atlanto-axial joint?

synovial, pivot

140

What are the articulating surfaces at the median atlanto-axial joint?

facet for dens of anterior arch of atlas & anterior articular facet of dens axis

141

What extracapsular ligaments are part of the atlanto-occipital joint?

anterior atlanto-occipital membrane, posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

142

True or False: The atlanto-occipital joint has two synovial joint capsules.

True

143

What extracapsular ligaments are part of the median atlanto-axial joint?

transverse atlantal ligament; ligaments connecting axis and occipital bone

144

What are the articulating surfaces at the lateral atlanto-axial joints?

inferior articular facet of atlas; superior articular facet of axis

145

What ligament is part of the lateral atlanto-axial joints?

Capsular accessory ligament

146

What type of joint is the lateral atlanto-axial joint?

synovial, plane ("sliding") joints

147

What are the four lateral vertebral muscles?

anterior scalene, middle scalene, posterior scalene, levator scapulae

148

What are the anterior vertebral muscles?

Flexors of the neck acting on atlanto-occipital joint (C1-C3 anterior rami): Rectus capitis anterior, Rectus capitis lateralis and Longus capitis
Longus cervicis - flexor and rotator of cervical spine (C2-C6 anterior rami)

149

Platysma: attachments, action, innervation

skin & subQ tissue of lower face, and mandible
skin & subQ tissue of upper thorax
facial expression
CN VII

150

Sternocleidomastoid: attachments, action, innervation

mastoid process of temporal bone
sternal head - manubrium; clavicular head - sternal end
unilateral contraction turns head to opposite side
bilateral contraction extends superior neck and flexes inferior neck
CN XI

151

Trapezius, descending (Superior) part: attachments, action, innervation

occipital bone and ligamentum nuchae
clavicle (acromial end)
tilts head to same side, or elevates and laterally rotates scapula
CN XI

152

What are the actions of the lateral vertebral muscles?

lateral flexors of the neck (or elevators of ribs and scapula)

153

How are the lateral vertebral muscles of the cervical spine innervated?

anterior rami of C3-C8 spinal nerves

154

What are the attachments of the anterior scalene muscle?

transverse process of C3-C6 and first rib

155

What are the attachments of the middle scalene muscle?

transverse processes of C1-C7 and first rib

156

Where is the ligamentum nuchae?

spans from occipital bone to spinous process of C7 vertebrae

157

What are the major actions of suboccipital muscles?

extensors acting on atlanto-occipital joint
rotators acting on atlanto-axial joint

158

What is the innervation of suboccipital muscles?

C1 posterior ramus

159

What are the four suboccipital muscles?

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior

160

What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck?

anterior border of SCM, inferior border of mandible, anterior midline of the neck

161

What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck?

SCM, superior fibres of trapezius muscle, medial half of clavicle

162

What three elements are contained within the carotid sheath?

carotid arteries, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve

163

What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle?

Sternocleidomastoid (posterior)
Superior belly of omohyoid (inferior)
Posterior belly of digastric (superior)

164

name three branches of the external carotid artery in the carotid triangle of the neck

facial artery, superior thyroid artery, lingual artery

165

Which cranial nerve is the motor nerve for the tongue muscles?

Hypoglossal nerve (CNXII)

166

What does the internal laryngeal nerve do

provides sensory and parasympathetic fibres to the mucous membrane of the larynx above the level of the vocal cords

167

What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle of the anterior triangle of the neck?

superior belly of omohyoid, lower fibres of SCM, hyoid, sternum

168

What triangle(s) are the thyroid and parathyroid glands

both carotid and muscular

169

What are the three strap (infrahyoid) muscles

sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid

170

The inferior thyroid artery is a major branch of the

thyrocervical trunk, a branch of the subclavian artery

171

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do

motor fibres to most of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx and sensory and parasymapthetic fibres to the laryngeal mucous membrane from the level of the vocal cords downwards

172

What nerves must be protected to avoid paralysis of the vocal cords?

recurrent layrngeal nerves

173

Describe the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

branches from vagus nerve, wraps around arch of aorta (left)/subclavian artery (right)

174

What muscle forms the roof of the submandibular triangle?

mylohyoid

175

The internal carotid artery enters the cranium via what canal?

carotid

176

Name three branches of the internal carotid artery in the head/neck

ophthalmic artery (to orbit via optic canal)
middle and anterior cerebral arteries

177

What are five branches of the external carotid artery in the carotid triangle in the neck

superior thryoid artery, ascending pharyngeal artery, lingual artery, facial artery, occipital artery

178

Name three branches of the external carotid artery in the parotid region of the neck

posterior auricular artery, superficial temporal artery, maxillary artery (inferior alveolar & middle meningeal arteries)

179

A fracture near the pterion can cause what type of hemorrhage? What artery is involved?

epidural, middle meningeal artery

180

Name four branches of the subclavian artery in the neck

vertebral artery, internal thoracic (mammary) artery, thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk

181

Name three areas supplied by the vertebral arteries

brainstem, cerebellum, cervical spinal cord

182

Name two tributaries to the internal jugular vein

dural venous sinuses (drain the brain), common facial vein (facial vein drains the anterior face, anterior division of Retromandibular vein)

183

Name three tributaries to the external jugular vein?

posterior division of Retromandibular vein, posterior auricular vein, anterior jugular vein

184

True or False: The dural sinuses have anastomoses (emissary veins) with other extracranial veins through several cranial foramina

True. This is a potential intracranial infection route