General Organisation of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

Sem 3: Head and Neck > General Organisation of the Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Organisation of the Head and Neck Deck (33):
1

What landmarks can be seen with the naked eye on the neck?

- Thyroid cartilage (more prominent in males as it is the Adam's apple)
- Cricoid cartilage (below the thyroid cartilage)
- Thyroid gland (below the cricoid cartilage)

2

Name the 3 anatomically important muscles of the neck.

1. Platysma
2. Sternocleidomastoid
3. Trapezius

3

Describe the function of platysma.

Draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and the skin of the neck superiorly if the teeth are clenched.

4

Which nerve supplies platysma?

Facial nerve (Cn.VII)

5

Describe the function of sternocleidomastoid.

Lateral flexion of the neck

6

Which nerve supplies sternocleidomastoid?

Accessory nerve (Cn. XI)

7

Describe the function of trapezius.

Elevating and rotating of the scapula (Shrugging of the shoulders)

8

What nerve supplies the trapezius?

Accessory nerve (Cn. XI)

9

Name 3 anatomical areas found in the neck.

1. Anterior triangle
2. Posterior triangle
3. Carotid triangle

10

What are the anatomical boarders of the posterior triangle?

Anterior: Posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
Posterior: Anterior border of the trapezius muscle
Inferior: clavicle

11

What are the anatomical boarders of the anterior triangle?

Superiorly: Inferior border of the mandible (jawbone)
Laterally: Medial border of the sternocleidomastoid
Medially: Imaginary sagittal line down midline of body

12

What are the anatomical boarders of the carotid triangle?

Superior: Posterior belly of the digastric muscle.
Lateral: Medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Inferior: Superior belly of the omohyoid muscle.

13

Name the 5 layers of fascia within the neck, from outside in.

1. Superficial cervical fascia (loose connective tissue)
2. Investing layer
3. Carotid sheath
4. Pre tracheal fascia
5. Pre visceral fascia

14

What structures are found in the superficial cervical fascia (loose connective tissue) layer?

- Fat
- Lymph nodes
- Platysma
- Cutaneous nerves
- Superficial blood vessels

15

What structures are found in the investing layer of fascia?

- Trapezius
- Sternocleidomastoid
- Partoid and sub-mandibular salivary glands

16

What structures are found in the carotid sheath layer of fascia?

- Common corotid artery
- Internal jugular vein
- Vagus nerve
- Lymph nodes

17

What structures are found in the pre tracheal layer of fascia?

- Thyroid gland
- Trachea
- Esophagus

18

What structures are found in the pre visceral layer of fascia?

- Vertebral bodies
- Inter-vertebral muscles

19

Where does the carotid sheath run to?

The arch of the aorta

20

Where does the pre tracheal fascia run to?

The mediastinum

21

Where does the pre visceral fascia run to?

The brachial plexus

22

What is the back of the pre tracheal fascia also known as?

The buccopharyngeal aspect

23

What is found directly behind the buccopharyngeal aspect?

Retropharyngeal space

24

Why is the Retropharyngeal space of medical concern?

In this space infection can occur which can compress the pharynx or spread to the mediastinum causing mediastinitis.

25

Name the 2 groups of muscles of the face.

1. Muscles of fascial expression
2. Muscles of mastication (chewing)

26

Which nerve are the muscles of facial expression innervated by?

Facial nerve Cn.VII

27

Which nerve are the muscles of mastication innervated by?

Trigeminal Cn. V

28

What is the name of the main sensory nerve of the face and scalp?

Trigeminal Cn. V

29

Name the 3 key branches of the trigeminal nerve.

1. Opthalmic
2. Maxillary
3. Mandibular

30

Name the 5 key branches of the facial nerve.

REMEMBER: Two Zebras Borrowed My Car

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Marginal Manibular
Cervical

31

Other than the innervation of muscles of the face, what else is the cranial nerve responsible for?

- Tongue-taste
- Parasympathetic innervation to salivary and lacrimal glands

32

Describe the artery supply of the head and neck.

The common carotid artery is the main arteial supply via its terminal branches. (internal carotid, external carotid, facial artery branch)

33

Describe the venous supply of the head and neck.

The internal jugular vein is the main vein, however the main drainage from the face is the facial vein.