Flashcards in General Parasitology Deck (74):
Parasitology can only be applied to animal parasites belonging to the ____,_____ and _____.
Includes any reciprocal association in which a spp depend upon another for existence.
Permanent association of 2 organisms that CANNOT EXIST INDEPENDENTLY.
Both organisms benefited.
In ____, one partner is benefited and the other in unaffected.
Term used to refer to a weaker organism that obtains food/shelter from other organisms.
Known as harboring species.
Refers to parasites that live on the outside.
Other term for this mechanism.
Parasites that live within the body of the host.
Other term for this mechanism.
Parasites are termed ____ when they are capable of leading both a free and a parasitic existence.
Parasites that take up a permanent residence in and are dependent upon the host.
Parasite that establishes itself in a host in which it does not ordinarily live.
Parasite that is free-living.
Parasite that remains on or in the body of the host through its entire life.
It is an artifact mistaken for a parasite.
Parasite that is a foreign spp that has passed through the alimentary tract w/o infecting the host.
Coprozoic or spurious parasite
Family name ends with ____.
Super family ends with ____.
Subfamily ends with ____.
2 factors for enhancing conditions for parasitic infection.
1. Irrigation project
2. Use of night soil in agriculture.
3 Factors that favor the spread of parasitic diseases.
1. Poor individual sanitation
2. Low standard of living
2 religious rites that are responsible for transmission of infection.
2. Immersion in heavily contaminated water.
This is essential for the development of free-living larvae.
Necessary for propagation and immediate host.
Host that harbors the adult or sexual stage of parasite.
Final or definitive host
Part or all of the larval/asexual stage may take place in another animal, known as _____ host.
Primary and secondary hosts are involved in species namely ____ and ____.
Trematodes and Cestodes
An animal that harbors the parasite in an arrested state or development.
3 types of host to which humans could be classified:
1. Definitive host (beef and pork tapeworms)
2. Intermediate host ( hydatid tapeworms)
3. Incidental host
Situation in which the infected individual is NOT NECESSARY for the patient's survival/development.
Infection that is normally transmitted only among animals.
Refers to human host when the cycle for transmission of the parasite cannot be transmitted further.
Animal hosts that harbor the same parasite.
3 Factors involved in transmission or parasites.
1. Source of transmission
2. Mode or transmission
3. Presence of susceptible host
3 types of host which a human being could be when infected by a parasite.
1. Only host
2. Principal host
3. Incidental host
Modes of transmission (7).
1. Direct and indirect contact
5. Vertebrate vectors
6. Arthropod vectors
7. Mother to offspring (rare)
Invasion of endoparasites.
External parasitism of ectoparasites.
3 Factors affecting the pathogenesis of parasitic infection.
1. Number of parasites
2. Tissue tropism
3. Specific mechanism of the damage
Parasites capable of multiplying in the host.
One of the most striking characteristics of parasitic infections.
4 mechanisms by which parasites can damage the host:
1. Mechanical effects (e.g pressure from enlarging cyst)
2. Invasion and destruction of host cells by parasite itself.
3. Inflammatory rxn to parasite
4. Competition for host nutrients.
3 Reasons for the ability of the host to withstand infection by a parasite.
1. Physiochemical barriers
2. Natural resistance
3. Immunity acquired fr. Previous infxn
First type of resistance (3).
Intact skin ( parasites that require mucous membranes)
Abrasions for penetration
Chemical milieu in the upper small bowel
Science that deals with organisms that take up their abodes on or within other organisms.
Parasites that often produce secretory and excretory products that are also antigenic.
Tests involved in demonstrating humoral antibodies: (5)
1. CF (Complement Factor)
2. HA (Hemagglutination)
3. A-GP (Agar-gel precipitation)
4. FAb (Fluorescent Antibody)
5. ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)
Lymphocytes that initiate production of antibodies.
Different immunoglobulin classes. (3)
IgG, IgM, IgA
An elevation level of parasite-specific IgG is an indicator of ___.
Immunoglobulins which are elevated during parasitic infection.
IgM and IgE
Immunoglobulin also referred to as reaginic/skin sensitizing antigen.
Plays an important role in some host-parasite interactions involving helminths and protozoa.
___ or ___ can initiate a variety of immunologic events.
Lymphokines or interleukins
Measures the degree of response assessed by the degree of proliferation or blast transformation.
Incorporation of added radioactive thymidine.
Interleukin that regulates IgE production by B cells.
One immunologic manifestation associated with parasitic infections.
Intermediate hosts of trematodes.
Term for animal parasitism.
When the parasite was unable to go to the site of development, no growth will occur.
Heterogenetic association between 2 non-similar organisms.
May also refer to mutualism.
Whale shark and small fish relationship
Examples of close relationship.
Mutualism and Parasitism
Examples of loose relationship.
Phoresis and Commensalism
Host that is not readily affected.
Host that is readily infected
Host which are commonly vectors.
3 Classifications of parasites.
2. Effect to host
Parasites that live with the host while developing and when they are fully developed they leave the host and kill it.
Other name for your answer.
Parasites that live with host while developing and leaves the host when fully developed.
Example of multicellular parasites.
Give the two types of helminths and give examples for each.
1. Nematoda - roundworms; ascaris
2. Platyhelmiths - flatworms
Types of protozoans and examples for each.
Amoeba - pseudopods
Flagellates - T. vaginalis
Ciliates - Balantidium coli
Sporozoan - Plasmodium spp.
Balantidium coli (ciliates)
2 types of incubation.
1. Clinical Incubation (person infected - host)
2. Biological Incubation (parasite)