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Flashcards in General Parasitology Deck (74):
1

Parasitology can only be applied to animal parasites belonging to the ____,_____ and _____.

Helminths
Arthropods
Protozoa

2

Includes any reciprocal association in which a spp depend upon another for existence.

Parasitism

3

Permanent association of 2 organisms that CANNOT EXIST INDEPENDENTLY.

Symbiosis

4

Both organisms benefited.

Mutualism

5

In ____, one partner is benefited and the other in unaffected.

Commensalism

6

Term used to refer to a weaker organism that obtains food/shelter from other organisms.

Parasite

7

Known as harboring species.

Host

8

Refers to parasites that live on the outside.

Other term for this mechanism.

Ectoparasites


Infestation

9

Parasites that live within the body of the host.


Other term for this mechanism.

Endoparasites


Infection

10

Parasites are termed ____ when they are capable of leading both a free and a parasitic existence.

Facultative

11

Parasites that take up a permanent residence in and are dependent upon the host.

Obligate

12

Parasite that establishes itself in a host in which it does not ordinarily live.

Incidental parasite

13

Parasite that is free-living.

Temporary parasite

14

Parasite that remains on or in the body of the host through its entire life.

Permanent parasite

15

It is an artifact mistaken for a parasite.

Pseudoparasite

16

Parasite that is a foreign spp that has passed through the alimentary tract w/o infecting the host.

Coprozoic or spurious parasite

17

Family name ends with ____.

Super family ends with ____.

Subfamily ends with ____.

-"idae"


-"oidae"


-"inae"

18

2 factors for enhancing conditions for parasitic infection.

1. Irrigation project
2. Use of night soil in agriculture.

19

3 Factors that favor the spread of parasitic diseases.

1. Poor individual sanitation
2. Low standard of living
3. Ignorance

20

2 religious rites that are responsible for transmission of infection.

1. Ablution
2. Immersion in heavily contaminated water.

21

This is essential for the development of free-living larvae.

Necessary for propagation and immediate host.

Moisture

22

Host that harbors the adult or sexual stage of parasite.

Final or definitive host

23

Part or all of the larval/asexual stage may take place in another animal, known as _____ host.

Intermediate host

24

Primary and secondary hosts are involved in species namely ____ and ____.

Trematodes and Cestodes

25

An animal that harbors the parasite in an arrested state or development.

Paratenic host

26

3 types of host to which humans could be classified:

1. Definitive host (beef and pork tapeworms)

2. Intermediate host ( hydatid tapeworms)

3. Incidental host

27

Situation in which the infected individual is NOT NECESSARY for the patient's survival/development.

Zoonosis

28

Infection that is normally transmitted only among animals.

Zoonotic infection

29

Refers to human host when the cycle for transmission of the parasite cannot be transmitted further.

Dead-end host

30

Animal hosts that harbor the same parasite.

Reservoir hosts

31

3 Factors involved in transmission or parasites.

1. Source of transmission
2. Mode or transmission
3. Presence of susceptible host

32

3 types of host which a human being could be when infected by a parasite.

1. Only host
2. Principal host
3. Incidental host

33

Modes of transmission (7).

1. Direct and indirect contact
2. Food
3. Water
4. Soil
5. Vertebrate vectors
6. Arthropod vectors
7. Mother to offspring (rare)

34

Invasion of endoparasites.

Infection

35

External parasitism of ectoparasites.

Infestation

36

3 Factors affecting the pathogenesis of parasitic infection.

1. Number of parasites
2. Tissue tropism
3. Specific mechanism of the damage

37

Parasites capable of multiplying in the host.

Protozoa

38

One of the most striking characteristics of parasitic infections.

Tissue specificity

39

4 mechanisms by which parasites can damage the host:

1. Mechanical effects (e.g pressure from enlarging cyst)

2. Invasion and destruction of host cells by parasite itself.

3. Inflammatory rxn to parasite

4. Competition for host nutrients.

40

3 Reasons for the ability of the host to withstand infection by a parasite.

1. Physiochemical barriers
2. Natural resistance
3. Immunity acquired fr. Previous infxn

41

First type of resistance (3).

Intact skin ( parasites that require mucous membranes)

Abrasions for penetration

Chemical milieu in the upper small bowel

42

Science that deals with organisms that take up their abodes on or within other organisms.

Parasitology

43

Parasites that often produce secretory and excretory products that are also antigenic.

Helmiths

44

Tests involved in demonstrating humoral antibodies: (5)

1. CF (Complement Factor)
2. HA (Hemagglutination)
3. A-GP (Agar-gel precipitation)
4. FAb (Fluorescent Antibody)
5. ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)

45

Lymphocytes that initiate production of antibodies.

B cells

46

Different immunoglobulin classes. (3)

IgG, IgM, IgA

47

An elevation level of parasite-specific IgG is an indicator of ___.

IgM

48

Immunoglobulins which are elevated during parasitic infection.

IgM and IgE

49

Immunoglobulin also referred to as reaginic/skin sensitizing antigen.

IgE

50

Plays an important role in some host-parasite interactions involving helminths and protozoa.

Serum complement

51

___ or ___ can initiate a variety of immunologic events.

Lymphokines or interleukins

52

Measures the degree of response assessed by the degree of proliferation or blast transformation.

Incorporation of added radioactive thymidine.

53

Interleukin that regulates IgE production by B cells.

IL-4

54

One immunologic manifestation associated with parasitic infections.

Eosinophilia

55

Intermediate hosts of trematodes.

Snails

56

Term for animal parasitism.

Parasitos

57

When the parasite was unable to go to the site of development, no growth will occur.

Tissue trophism

58

Heterogenetic association between 2 non-similar organisms.

Symbiosis

59

May also refer to mutualism.

Give example.

Cleaning symbiosis

Whale shark and small fish relationship

60

Examples of close relationship.

Mutualism and Parasitism

61

Examples of loose relationship.

Phoresis and Commensalism

62

Host that is not readily affected.

Refractory

63

Host that is readily infected

Susceptible

64

Host which are commonly vectors.

Biologic

65

3 Classifications of parasites.

1. Habitat
2. Effect to host
3. Functions

66

Parasites that live with the host while developing and when they are fully developed they leave the host and kill it.

Other name for your answer.

Parasitoids


Micropredator

67

Parasites that live with host while developing and leaves the host when fully developed.

Protelean

68

Example of multicellular parasites.

Helminths

69

Give the two types of helminths and give examples for each.

1. Nematoda - roundworms; ascaris
2. Platyhelmiths - flatworms

70

Single-celled parasite.

Protozoan

71

Types of protozoans and examples for each.

Amoeba - pseudopods
Flagellates - T. vaginalis
Ciliates - Balantidium coli
Sporozoan - Plasmodium spp.

72

Largest protozoan.

Balantidium coli (ciliates)

73

2 types of incubation.

1. Clinical Incubation (person infected - host)
2. Biological Incubation (parasite)

74

Refers to the type of incubation from occurrence of infection up to the parasitic demonstration.

Prepotent period (Biological Incubation)