Flashcards in General Principles - Blue book Deck (51):
What is the body's innate response to injury?
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
What is rubor? What causes it?
Due to vasodilator caused by histamine
What is dolor?
Due to kallikrein and bradykinin
What is calor?
Due to increased vascularity due to histamine and serotonin
What is tumor?
Swelling due to increased vascular permeability - histamine and serotonin
What is functio laesa
Loss of function
Due to decreased cell functioning
What are the cellular responses to tissue injury or inflammation?
Rolling and adhesion
This is the way WBCs move to the periphery of the blood vessel by chemotaxis.
This is due to inflammatory compounds which attract WBCs.
Refers to WBCs sticking to the endothelium
The passage of WBCs through blood vessels facilitated by chemotaxis.
What two types of things happen in emigration?
diapedsis or transmigration
Which cells phagocytize in in injured tissues?
What are the Hemodynamics (vascular) changes?
Increased vascular permeability
How long does the initial vasodilation happen?
A few seconds
Vasodilator is mediated by what?
bradykinin and kallikrien
Histamine is released by the degranulation of which cells?
Basophils (and related mast cells)
bradykinin and kallkrein are responsible for what?
Serotonin is released by what?
Which compounds are responsible for further inflammation?
Blood stasis is due to what?
What is a pus filled cavity called?
These result in there is a loss of surface epithelium.
This is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces.
Fistula (vesicolic fistula)
A blind ended tract connected to one epithelial surface.
Occurs when tissue healing and is characterized by fibrous tissue.
A tumorous overgrowth of fibrous tissue in a scar. MC in black people.
What cells are found in chronic inflammation?
epithelioid cells, Langhans giant cells, and granulomas
These cells seen in chronic inflammation are activated macrophages found in granulomatous conditions like TB.
These cells seen in chronic inflammation are found in granulomatous diseases; they are formed by the fusion of many epithelioid cells.
Langhans cells (giant cells)
This type of change is characterized by specialized macrophages surrounded by a rim of activated lymphocytes.
With chronic inflammation cells can go through these types of changes:
One cell type undergoes is replaced by another cell type.
Is metaplasia reversible?
Metaplasia is seen in this condition which occurs with chronic GERD.
Disorderly but non-neoplastic growth.
Severe dysplasia is _____ and may lead to _______.
Carcinoma in situ
Disorganized, uncontrolled growth with lack of differentiation.
New growth of cells and is synonymous with a tumor.
Tissue injury is caused by?
Caused by lack of blood supply.
Caused by oxygen deprivation or deceased [oxygen].
Absence of oxygen
When tissues are deprived of blood supply, the following might occur depending on when this occurs.
Complete absence of an organ at birth:
Failure of an organ or a tissue to develop normally; only a small remnant is left.
Underdevelopment of an organ or a tissue resulting in decrease in number of cells.
Death of a tissue due to lack of blood supply.
Red (hemorrhagic) infarction occurs in organs with dual blood supply like:
Brain, liver, lung, and gut