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Flashcards in General Principles - Blue book Deck (51):
1

What is the body's innate response to injury?

inflammation

2

What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?

rubor
Dolor
calor
tumor
Functio laesa

3

What is rubor? What causes it?

Redness
Due to vasodilator caused by histamine

4

What is dolor?

Pain
Due to kallikrein and bradykinin

5

What is calor?

heat
Due to increased vascularity due to histamine and serotonin

6

What is tumor?

Swelling due to increased vascular permeability - histamine and serotonin

7

What is functio laesa

Loss of function
Due to decreased cell functioning

8

What are the cellular responses to tissue injury or inflammation?

margination
Chemotaxis
Rolling and adhesion
pavementation
Emigration
phagocytosis

9

This is the way WBCs move to the periphery of the blood vessel by chemotaxis.

margination

10

This is due to inflammatory compounds which attract WBCs.

chemotaxis

11

Refers to WBCs sticking to the endothelium

pavementation

12

The passage of WBCs through blood vessels facilitated by chemotaxis.

emigration

13

What two types of things happen in emigration?

diapedsis or transmigration

14

Which cells phagocytize in in injured tissues?

macrophages

15

What are the Hemodynamics (vascular) changes?

Initial vasoconstriction
vasodilation
Increased vascular permeability
Blood stasis

16

How long does the initial vasodilation happen?

A few seconds

17

Vasodilator is mediated by what?

Histamine
bradykinin and kallikrien
Serotonin
prostaglandins

18

Histamine is released by the degranulation of which cells?

Basophils (and related mast cells)

19

bradykinin and kallkrein are responsible for what?

nociception

20

Serotonin is released by what?

platelets

21

Which compounds are responsible for further inflammation?

prostaglandins

22

Blood stasis is due to what?

Increased viscosity

23

What is a pus filled cavity called?

abcess

24

These result in there is a loss of surface epithelium.

ulcer

25

This is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces.

Fistula (vesicolic fistula)

26

A blind ended tract connected to one epithelial surface.

sinus

27

Occurs when tissue healing and is characterized by fibrous tissue.

scar

28

A tumorous overgrowth of fibrous tissue in a scar. MC in black people.

keloid

29

What cells are found in chronic inflammation?

epithelioid cells, Langhans giant cells, and granulomas

30

These cells seen in chronic inflammation are activated macrophages found in granulomatous conditions like TB.

epithelioid cells

31

These cells seen in chronic inflammation are found in granulomatous diseases; they are formed by the fusion of many epithelioid cells.

Langhans cells (giant cells)

32

This type of change is characterized by specialized macrophages surrounded by a rim of activated lymphocytes.

Granulomatous change

33

With chronic inflammation cells can go through these types of changes:

Metaplasia
Dysplasia
Anaplasia
neoplasia

34

One cell type undergoes is replaced by another cell type.

metaplasia

35

Is metaplasia reversible?

yes

36

Metaplasia is seen in this condition which occurs with chronic GERD.

Barrett's esophagus

37

Disorderly but non-neoplastic growth.

dysplasia

38

Severe dysplasia is _____ and may lead to _______.

Precancerous
Carcinoma in situ

39

Disorganized, uncontrolled growth with lack of differentiation.

anaplasia

40

New growth of cells and is synonymous with a tumor.

neoplasia

41

Tissue injury is caused by?

Ischemic
Hypoxic
anoxia

42

Caused by lack of blood supply.

ischemia

43

Caused by oxygen deprivation or deceased [oxygen].

hypoxia

44

Absence of oxygen

apoxia

45

When tissues are deprived of blood supply, the following might occur depending on when this occurs.

Agenesis
Aplasia
hypoplasia
infarction

46

Complete absence of an organ at birth:

agenesis

47

Failure of an organ or a tissue to develop normally; only a small remnant is left.

aplasia

48

Underdevelopment of an organ or a tissue resulting in decrease in number of cells.

hypoplasia

49

Death of a tissue due to lack of blood supply.

infarction

50

Red (hemorrhagic) infarction occurs in organs with dual blood supply like:

Brain, liver, lung, and gut

51

White infarction occurs with end arteries:

Heart and kidney