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Flashcards in General Semantics / Narratology Deck (80)
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1

Intrapersonal Communication

communication within the mind

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Interpersonal Communication

communication between people

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What are the 8 types of communication?

Intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and team, organizational, performance, intercultural, media and new tech, and public

4

What is communication?

a systemic process in which individuals interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings

5

Communication is a symbolic activity in that:

they represent or stand for other things, but they are not the things for which they stand

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What are the three a's of symbols?

abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous

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Abstract

symbols aren't concrete or tangible

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Arbitrary

Non natural or intrinsic relation to what symbols represent

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Ambiguous

meanings aren't clear cut

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a map is a ----- of an actually existing place

abstract

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what to things do symbols allow us to do?

interpret and construct meaning

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Communications studies is the study of

how we create meaning in our lives

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4 goals of theory

1. Description
2. Explanation
3. Prediction
4. Reform

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3 methods of testing theories

1. Quantitative
2. Qualitative
3. Critical Scholarship

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What does S.H.U.T.P stand for?

Scope, Heurism, Utility, Tesatability, Parsimony

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Q: Scope

Does it offer a full description and explanation of the communication it studies?

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Q: Heurism

Is it heuristic (generating new thought. research/insight)

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Q: Utility

Does it have practical utility?

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Q: Testability

is it testable?

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Q: Parismony

Is it appropriately simple?

21

Claude Shannon was

a mathematician, engineer and cryptographer

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Warren Weaver was a

scientist, electronic engineer

23

What does the encoder/decoder model do?

describes communication as a one way process, communicators are either source or receiver, and focuses on information transmission only, not other dimensions of human communication

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in the 1920s, what type of communications study was hugely influential?

rhetoric

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In the 1920s the focus was on

the source of the message, not the audience

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I.A Richards said

" communication is more than the source, what about the listeners and interpretation?"

27

General semantics wants to discover:

how words distort, obscure and compilation understanding: words are slippery

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The ladder of abstraction

the least abstract version of a symbol and at the top we have a higher degree of abstraction: creates another source of misunderstandings between people

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The semantic triangle demonstrates

the relationship between symbols. The real world object as well as the thought or concept that is evoked.

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the three aspects of the semantic triangle are

thought/reference, referent (reality), symbol

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Symbol > thought

symbolizes ( a casual relation)

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Symbol > reality

stands for (an imputed relation)

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thought > reality

refers to (other casual relations)

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symbols are ambiguous because

their meanings change. they are variable and uncleart

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Context refers to (3)

the history between communicators, setting of the communication and the thoughts and feelings of the communicators

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context includes the field of experience, meaning:

the life experiences, attitudes, values that each person brings to an interaction

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What are I.A Richards 4 proposals for better communication?

Intentional vs. Extensional Orientation, Etc., Indexing and Feedforward

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What is Intentional vs. Extensional Orientation

Changing how you use your words vs. reality. For example, saying you're a feminist vs. saying you are a person that believes in the equality between people

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Why use etc.

reminder of all the variable meanings our words have : there is no way to say all that we need to about something

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Indexing

Reminder that meanings change over time, so speak in a way that refers to times, location, etc.

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Feedforward

plan our communication, anticipate the effect of words before speaking and adapt to these anticipated effects

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Critique of Richards:

Practicality

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Who spoke of the "self" "me" "i" the "looking glass self" "others"

George Herbert Mead

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The self emerges from

social interactions: observing and interacting with others and responding to those opinions of you

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According to Mead, are you born with the self?

no

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The development of the self is a

process of learning who we are based on social experiences

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What two parts is the self constituted of?

The me and the I

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What is "me"

the socialized aspect of an individual. Represent the learned behaviours and expectations. Developed with the knowledge of society that we encounter as we interact with the world

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what is the I

imaginative, impulsive, unruly. care little about rules and convention

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The ability to use symbols (words) that have common social meaning is called

the mind

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the looking glass self

labels applied to us by others shape our self identity and behaviours - you internalize the messages you get from others

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2 types of others

particular and generalized

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Who is Kennet Burke?

The foremost rhetorician of the 20th century who sees humans as symbol using animals

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key idea from burke

language gives insight into who a person is and how they see things (worldview)

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Dramatism

an analytical process for gaining insight into a speakers motives and worldview

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2 reasons why human communication is important to burke

we better identify with each other, we can persuade or work out conflict

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Division between people makes us aware of

the need for identification

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what is identificaiton

the common ground that exists between the speaker and the audience: common experiences, language, goals

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without identification, we cannot overcome

division

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According to Burke, humans communicate to overcome

guilt

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Guilt definition to burke

a sense of uneasiness

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3 ways we use language to set us up for feelings of guilt

1. hierarchy
2. perfection
3. the negative

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hierarchical language

language allows us to create categories and judgements that provide foundation for distinct classes

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perfective language

language allows us to imagine and thus strive for the ideal. Humans are rotten with perfection in that there is a gap between reality and the ideal

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negative language

language allows for rules, moral codes that surround us and we can't escape violating: we name what should not be

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2 ways of purging guilt

mortification and victimage

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mortification

purging guilt through self blame, admitting they were wrong, asking for forgiveness

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victimage

purge guilt by blaming an external source for wrong doing: not the speakers fault

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what is the core plot of human drama

the guilt redemption cycle

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5 aspects of the dramatistic pentad

act/scene/agent/agency/purpose

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3 critiques of dramatism

it is obscure and confusing, it is too broad of a scope, and questions if guilt is always the underlying motivation for human action

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Walter Fisher discusses the

narrative paradigm

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Walter fisher argues that

human beings experience and comprehend life as a narrative. We are story tellers

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W.F says most communication assumes narrative form because

this is how humans understand expereince

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Narration

people use words and actions to communicate meaning for those who live, create or interpret them

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paradigm

a conceptual framework: a universal model that calls for people to view events through a common lens

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the rational world paradigm suggests

that people are essentially rational and that decisions are based on argument and logic

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2 standards of narrative rationality

coherence and fidelity

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coherence

does the story make sense?

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fidelity in story

does the story ring true? more specifically, does the story correspond with the listeners own experiences and beliefs?