What are the consequences of air embolism
>50 cc of air causes intensive pulmonary artery vasoconstriction, pulmonary edema, and cor pulmonale. >200 cc of air is fatal.
What is the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy
1 - 5%.
What is the incidence of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after total thyroidectomy
What is the fistula rate following free jejunal transfer (non-irradiated patients)
What % of laryngectomy patients who fail voice restoration following tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) suffer from cricopharyngeal spasm
What is the incidence of SNHL after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer
What is the fistula rate in patients who have had prior irradiation requiring total laryngectomy and partial pharyngectomy
15 - 20%.
What is the incidence of tracheoinnominate fistula after tracheostomy
What is the most effective duration for perioperative antibiotic administration
What % of patients with tracheoinnominate fistulae survive
What is the incidence of significant SNHL after revision stapedotomy
3 - 30°/o (up to 14% profound).
What is the most common complication from microsurgical reconstruction
36% suffer medical complications (pulmonary problems, prolonged ventilatory support, acute ethanol withdrawal).
What is the recurrence rate following excision of a TGDC without removal of the midportion of the hyoid and the ductal remnant
What is the perioperative mortality rate of gastric pull-up
What is the rate of major complications after gastric pull-up
What % of all instances of tracheal bleeding developing 48 hours or longer after surgery are caused by tracheoinnominate fistulae
What is the incidence of clinically significant pneumocephalus after anterior craniofacial surgery
What is incidence of persistent diplopia after orbital reconstruction
What is the incidence of complications after PEG
What are the most common complications of lateral tympanoplasty
Anterior blunting, lateralization, epithelial pearls, canal stenosis.
What is the management of injury to the sigmoid sinus during mastoidectomy
Apply gentle pressure, place a Surgicel or Gelfoam patch, and continue with surgery.
Where do strictures most often occur after free jejunal transfer
At the inferior anastomosis between the jejunum and esophagus.
Where do fistulas most often occur after free jejunal transfer
At the superior anastomosis between the jejunum and pharynx.
What are the signs of air embolism
Audible sucking sound in the wound, machine-like cardiac murmur, dysrhythmias, sudden systemic hypotension, decreased end expiratory C02, increased CVP.
What are the most common complications of pharyngeal flap surgery
Bleeding, airway obstruction, obstructive sleep apnea.
Which patients are at a higher risk of pneumothorax after tracheostomy
What is the best test to differentiate between cricopharyngeal spasm and stricture in patients who fail voice restoration following TEP
Which complication is most likely to be avoided with endoscopic diverticulectomy versus open diverticulectomy
Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
What is the treatment of pneumocephalus
Emergent drainage with needle aspiration, airway diversion (i.e. tracheostomy), nasal repacking.
What is the most common complication after orbital reconstruction