Genetic Engineering Flashcards Preview

Gd 12 LS 2018 > Genetic Engineering > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genetic Engineering Deck (11):
1

Genetic engineering

Direct manipulation of the genes of an organism

2

How in theory is genetic modification used to obtain a desired characteristic in a target organism?

The relevant gene fom one cell in one organism is transferred to a cell forming the target organism

3

Transgenic organism

The organism that has a gene that was transferred from an different organism

4

Steps in the process of forming a GMO

  1. Relevant gene identified and extracted
  2. Isolated gene transferred using a vector (e.g. a virus)
  3. Gene integrated in organisms genome
  4. The correct protein is synthesised and desired trait expressed

5

GMO

Genetically modified organism

6

recombinant DNA

New DNA sequence formed in a cell as a result of genetic engineering

7

The integration of genes in cells with faulty or missing genes as a treatment for an affected organism

Gene therapy

8

Uses of GMO's for human benefit

  • Synthesis of medical drugs
  • Cloning
  • New crop varieties
  • Stem cell research

9

Example medical uses of GMO's

  • Production of insulin
  • Production of vaccines

10

A disease where the pancrease does not produce suficient functional insulin

Diabetes mellitus

11

Past source of insulin for treating diabetics

  • Insulin was extracted from slaughtered cattle and pigs
  • Very expensive
  • Small quantities