genetics 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in genetics 1 Deck (48):
1

promoter

specific recognition sequence that turns gene on

2

DNA orientation

anti-parallel (3 and 5 are pointed in opposite directions)

3

piece of DNA that codes for something

gene

4

passive site; old RNA sits here

P site

5

no tRNA to match

stop codon

6

RNA to protein

translation

7

houses next codon in sequence, new tRNA enters and binds old to amino acid to new; active site

A site

8

set of genes controlled by one promoter; all have related function

operon

9

DNA composition

backbone is phosphate and sugar with nucleotides in the middle

10

many genes that compose RNA

polycistronic

11

stop codon

no tRNA to match

12

lagging strand synthesis

waits for double stranded DNA to separate, starts copying back in opposite direction

13

unzipping enzyme for double stranded DNA

helicase

14

always happens 5 to 3

replication

15

DNA to RNA

transcription

16

helicase

unzipping enzyme for double stranded DNA

17

gene that can be turned off

repressible gene

18

E site

exit site for old tRNA

19

molecule that interferes with transcription; binds to operator on DNA

repressor

20

gene

piece of DNA that codes for something

21

activators

turn on transcription

22

gene that is always on; housekeeping gene

constitutive gene

23

DNA polymerase

copies single stranded DNA to double stranded DNA

24

polycistronic

many genes that compose RNA

25

A site

houses next codon in sequence, new tRNA enters and binds old amino acid to new; active site

26

codon

three nucleotides called for one amino acid

27

P site

passive site; old RNA sits here

28

specific recognition sequence that turns gene on

promoter

29

exit site for old tRNA

E site

30

DNA double strands are held together by

hydrogen bonds

31

replication direction

always 5 to 3

32

three nucleotides called for one amino acid

codon

33

Transcription

DNA to RNA

34

repressible gene

can be turned off

35

transcription/sigma factors

binds to promoter to activate

36

copies single stranded DNA to double stranded DNA

DNA polymerase

37

primase

makes a short RNA sequence on a single stranded DNA

38

waits for double stranded DNA to separate, starts copying back in opposite direction

lagging strand synthesis

39

turn on transcription

activators

40

operon

set of genes with related function controlled by one promoter

41

makes a short RNA sequence on a single stranded DNA

primase

42

inducible gene

can be turned on

43

translation

RNA to protein

44

constitutive genes

always on; housekeeping genes

45

gene that can be turned on

inducible gene

46

enhances transcription

inducer

47

repressor

molecule that interferes with transcription; binds to operator on DNA

48

inducer

enhances transcription