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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (33):
1

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

Contains 37 genes that code for building tRNA and rRNA instead of traits

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Semi-Conservative

New DNA includes one parent strand and 1 new strand

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This enzyme breaks H+ bonds to separate strands

DNA helicase

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Topoisomerase

The enzyme that reduce tension in DNA as it's unwound

5

The opening of the DNA is called the

Replication fork

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Replication goes in the _________ to _______ direction

3 to 5

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DNA polymerase

Builds new strand of DNA

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DNA p3

Adds new nucleotides

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This puts down primers on new strands of DNA

RNA primase

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DNA ligase

Smooths out leading strand

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This enzyme proof reads the new strand and replaces primers with nucleotides

DNA polymerase

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Telomeres

The ends of a chromosome that don't code for proteins. They can fall off through cell division without consequence. They show the age of a cell.

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Protein

Polypeptides organized into specific shapes

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Codon

The 3 letter combinations that form a code

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Start codon

AUG
Codes for met. Shows where protein code starts

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Stop codons

Don't code for anything
Show where protein code stops

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2 steps of protein synthesis are

Transcription and translation

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3 types of RNA

mRNA
tRNA
rRNA

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Where does transcription occur?

Nucleus

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3 steps of transcription

Initiation
Elongation
Termination

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Enzyme required for transcription

RNA polymerase

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Promoter site

Just upstream from the gene that needs to be transcribed

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Initiation

RNA polymerase binds to promoter site and begins to open helix

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Elongation

RNA polymerase builds a single stranded mRNA in the 5-3 direction. Double helix reforms

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Termination

RNA polymerase reaches termination sequence, stops transcribing, and is released with the new mRNA

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Post transcription modification

Cap 5' end
Tail 3' end
Deletion of introns

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Where does translation take place

Ribosomes

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Parts of the ribosomes

Small ribosomes subunit
Large ribosomes subunit

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3 steps of translation

Initiation
Elongation
Termination

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Complex

When tRNA and small ribosome bind

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Scanning

Complex binds to mRNA and scans for start codon

32

Anticodon

Complementary codon to the mRNA codon

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Cleaved

When a codon is cut from the ribosome and added to another codon to form a chain