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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (11):
1

Chromosones

DNA molecule with all or part of the genetic information for a cell. 46 (23 pairs) in each cell.

2

Mitosis

Cell division.

1) A cell creates a copy of the chromosones.
2) The parent cell splits into two daughter cells.

3

Daughter cells

Identical diploid (normal amount of chromosones) cells.

Have a limit of fifty for how many times they can divide.

Also used for asexual reproduction.

4

Meiosis

Cell division that only occurs when the body forms gametes. Its purpose is to increase genetic variation.
1)Parent cell creates a copy of chromosones
2)Parent cell splits
3)Daughter cells split
Process produces HAPLOID cells (only 23 chromosones)
During the process, chromosones can cross & exchange info, in an effort to make more variation.

5

Haploid

Cells (gametes) with only 23 chromosones

6

Diploid

Cells with 46 chromosones

7

Why do humans look similar, but have small differences?

Because we all have the same genes, but a slightly different number of alleles

8

Allele

Variant form of gene, eg. eye colour.

9

DNA

Doxyribose nucleic acid. Chemical substance present in the nucleus of all cells of living organisms. Controls chemical changes that take place in cells, the type of cell formed, type of organism. A long molecule made up of sub units called nucleotides.

10

Nucleotide

Sub unit of DNA, made up of:
A sugar called deoxyribose
A phosphate Group -PO4
An organic base

Ribose is a sugar, like glucose, but with 5 carbon atoms instead of 6.
Deoxyribose is almost the same, but lacks an oxygen atom.

11

Organic bases

Adenine (A) = Thymine (T)
Guanine (G) = Cytosine (C)

Global Carnage

Apple Tree