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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (34):
1

Meiosis

A form of cellular division which produces gametes which contains half the chromosomes (23). The cell will not be identical, produces 4 cells. This happens in testes and the ovaries. When the dna lines up like in mitosis some of it is swapped.

2

Sexual reproduction in a plant

Pollination

3

Asexual reproduction in plants

Runners

4

Asexual reproduction in viruses

Copies pathogen to cause harm

5

Sexual reproduction in viruses

Parasite changed in the TBC into male and female.

6

Asexual reproduction in fungi

Produces spores

7

Sexual reproduction in fungi

Hyphae fuse, two plant connect

8

The parts of a nucleotide

Phosphate
Sugar
Base

9

Describe the structure of dna

Inside the chromosomes double helix structure. Made up of a polymer made up of nucleotides which are held together by hydrogen bonds. Bases are in pairs. The sugar back bone is attached to the base.

10

Each specific sequence of an amino acid chain

Each DNA strand has a sequence of bases, every 3 bases code for a specific amino acid. The sequence of amino acids makes the protein coil up to do its function

11

Mutation

Any change in the genetic material
These are random, natural, can be big or small.

12

Explain Gregor Mendel’s experiment

Two tall pea plants were bred together, only tall plants were in off spring. Two of the off spring were bred together and the offspring consisted of 3 tall plants and one short plant.

13

Allele

A version of a gene

14

Variation

Differences in the characteristics of individual in a population

15

Evolution

Evolution is a change in the inherited characteristics of a population over time.

16

How does natural selection work?

A random mutation occurs. This individual is now more likely to survive. They can reproduce and pass on their allele. More birds are born with that allele. These survive and breed increasing their numbers.

17

Darwin’s theory

Believed that evolution was dependent on adaptation to survive, everyone adapts in a different way and this happens via random mutations.

18

Lamark’s theory

Believer if your parents got a characteristic over their life time, their child would get it. Changed occur over life and are not reliant on genes.

19

Speciation

1.Population range is whole and interbreeding can occur meaning if there are random mutation all off the species are effected.
2.Then there is a barrier formation separating the species meaning they can’t breed.
3.Each population adapts differently and because of natural selection the most adapted survive.
4.If these two species met again they could produce fertile offspring.

20

Extinction

The permanent loss of all members of a species from the earth.

21

Endangerment

A species that is at serious risk of extinction

22

Fossil

Remains of an organism from millions of years ago.

23

Selective breeding

Selective breeding is a traditional method for improving crops and live stock

24

Classification

The organisation of living organisms into groups

25

How do you give a name to a species

First-Genetic name (genus) upper
Specific name- species lower

26

Interdependence

If one species is removed it can affect the whole community.

27

Describe the relationship between predator and prepay.

These are almost are the same because they must be in balance, the less prey there is the more predators are dying when this happens the prey increases because they’re not dying as much this means the predators will go up because there is more food and they eat more prey which will go back down and the cycle continues.

28

What is a quadrat

A way of focusing your research on a small portion of land. A square frame laid on the ground to outline a sample of land

29

Describe the water cycle

Rainfall happens at the top of the mountain and then the water runs down it. It gets absorbed into the ground to be used by trees or to run off to the ocean to evaporate, this then condenses inside cloud and the cycle starts again.

30

Carbon cycle

This is a balance between carbon being removed and returned to the atmosphere

31

Extremophile

Organisms that live in very extreme environments can survive conditions that would kill most others organisms

32

Decomposition

That state or process of rotting or decay. Without this the cycle in nature wouldn’t happen.

33

Food security

Having enough food to feed a population

34

Sustainability

Avoidance of the depletion of resources to maintain a balance