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Biology-20-The Control Of Gene Expression > Genome Projects > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genome Projects Deck (8)
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1

What is bioinformatics

The science of collecting and analysing complex biological data such as genetic codes

Uses computers to read, store, and organise biological data at a much faster rate than previously

2

How do we determine the complete base sequence of an organism

Using the whole genome shotgun sequencing technique

Involves researchers cutting the DNA into small, easily sequenced sections and then using computer algorithms to align overlapping segments to assemble the entire genome

3

Define proteome

All proteins produced in a given type of cell or organism at a given time under specific conditions

4

Why is determining the proteome of prokaryotic organisms like bacteria relatively easy

The vast majority of prokaryotes have just one, circular piece of DNA that is not associated with histones

There are none of the non coding portions of DNA which are typical of eukaryotic cells

5

Why is the problem in complex organisms is translating knowledge of the genome into the proteome

Because the genome of complex organisms contains many non coding genes as well as others that have a role in regulating other genes.

In humans it is thought 1.5% of genes may code for proteins

6

Distinguish between a genome and a proteome

A genome is all the genetic material in an organism. A proteome is all the proteins produced by the genome

7

Explain why determining the proteome of simple organisms like bacteria is easier than determining the proteome of complex ones like humans

Simplex organisms generally have just one, circular piece of DNA that is not associated with histones and there is little non coding DNA. Complex organisms have considerably more DNA and then majority of this does not code for proteins

8

Explain how knowledge of the proteome of a pathogen might help to control the disease if causes

It allows identification of those proteins that act as antigens on the surfaces of pathogens. These antigens can then be used to produce effective vaccines against the disease