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Flashcards in Nuthall Techtonics Deck (46):
1

Japan experiences.........% of the worlds earthquakes of Richter scale magnitude of 6 or more.

20%

2

Who provided aid after the Nepal earthquake in 2015

Norway provided £2.5million Humanitarian assistance.

UK provided a 8 strong humanitarian aid team and 5 million in aid.

Asian Development Bank provides US £200 million for reconstruction.

3

Life clock info -

includes; emergency portable light, emergency rescue whistle, an SOS emergency flag, gauze to treat bleeding and factures.

Sold over 10,000 clocks in les than 4 months.

4

Mount Pinatubo 1991

847 people were killed by the eruption mostly by roofs collapsing under weight of accumulated wet ash.

5

Body waves Primary

Primary - can pass through solids and liquids.
Direction of particle movement and wave movement is the same.

6

Body waves Secondary

Solids - can pass through solids only.
Direction of particle movement is at 90 degrees to direction of wave movement.

7

Surface waves Love

Similar to S waves.
Perpendicular to direction to travel.

8

Surface waves Rayleigh

Similar to water waves but counter clockwise.
Slowest.
V. destructive.

9

In 2010, ........% of Iceland's power consumption was used in aluminium production.

73%
From Geothermal power.
Crypto Mining.
Genesis mining

10

............. geothermal power plant

Hellisheioi

11

......million visitors to the blue lagoon every year.

13

12

Iceland's employment rate is .......

6.1% v. low

13

Remittances formed .........% of countries GDP in 2008 in Haiti

32%

14

Oceanic plates Density

3.0g/cm3

15

Continental plate Density

2.7g/cm3

16

......... people killed by the Merapi eruption

367

17

Eyjafajokull released ..........million kilos of CO2 into the atmosphere.

150

18

Japan earthquake claimed ......... lives and ..........injured.

16,000
6,000

19

Japan earthquakes cost, incl reconstruction has been estimated at $ ............

$181 Million

20

Japan earthquake - ...........million households and thousands of business lost electricity.
.........km evacuation zone

44 million
30km

21

Nepal earthquake 2015
........ fatalities

8,800

22

Nepal earthquake 2015
......... households destroyed

473,000

23

Nepal earthquake 2015
......... people required food assistance.

1 million

24

Nepal earthquake 2015
Cost to national economy at ...........billion - ..........% national economy.

$10 billion
10%

25

River flooding in Bangladesh 2007 -
......% of country was inundated.

60%

26

Nyiragnogo, Democratic Republic of Congo - 2002, several villages destroyed.
........% of Goma city and ........% of its economic district was destroyed.

13%
80%

27

1985 - Nevado de Ruiz erupted with extensive Lahars formed. Within four hours Lahars had killed more than ..........people.

23,000 people.

28

Deforestation and forest degradation account for approximately ........% of carbon emissions.

17%

29

REDD =

Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation Scheme.

30

REDD

Incentive for developing countries to conserve rainforests by placing monetary value on conservation.

Developing countries would receive results based payment for results based actions.

31

China's three North Sheterbelt Project. (Green Wall)

Began in 1978 and aims to plant 400,000km2 by 2050.

32

Zero Tillage?

Not ploughing the soil leads to increased oxidation.

33

Polyculture?

Crops interspersed with trees.

34

Crop residues?

Leave stems and leaves on fields to reduce soil erosion and drying out.

35

1997 - August Pryoclastic flows destroyed ........, Montserrat capital 3 miles from crater of Soufriere Hills Volcano.

Plymouth

36

Lake Nyos 1986 - ......... deaths, ...... people evacuated

1746 deaths.
4430 people evacuated.

37

The Kyoto Protocol
Adopted in ......
Doha Amendment in .......

1997
2012

38

The Kyoto Protocol
Evaluation ..........

The US and China have produced so much emissions to cancel out progress by other countries.

39

The Paris Agreement
In July 2017 France's environment minister .........

Nicolas Hulot announced Frances's 5 year plan to ban all petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040 as part of the Paris Agreement.

40

Explosive Volcanoes

More acidic Rhyolite lava
High % silica, higher viscosity.
Low temp
Violent busting of gas.
Tephra
e.g. Suffrier Hills, Montserrat.

41

Effusive Volcanoes

Basalt
Basic (low % silica)
Low viscosity
Low explosive force
More frequent eruptions
Lava flows
Multiple fissures
e.g. Eyjafjallajokull.

42

Reconstruction form the Japan earthquake is still on-going ........years later.

5 years.

43

Nepal 2015 - ........... people were displaced from the Kathmandu valley.

2.8 million

44

Indonesia - seismographs set up on Merapi in ............

1924
National Agency for Disaster management also set up.

45

Japanese earthquake UrEDAS system?

It detects an earthquake's small seismic waves prior to the arrival of larger waves and automatic cuts the power to bring trains to a stop - functioned perfectly.

46

Japan - new Earthquake-Resistant Construction standards were revised in ........

1981