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Flashcards in Geography Deck (51):
1

What shapes the coast?

The waves

2

What is erosion?

When waves wear away the coast

3

What is transportation?

When waves carry eroded material away

4

What is deposition?

When waves carry material on and off the land

5

What is the coast?

A narrow area between the land and sea

6

What happens to the coast

It is fragile and constantly changing (erosion)

7

What can the waves do?

They can erode soft rocks quicker than hard rocks, the coastlines are made of different rocks.

8

What are the eroded coastlines called when the land sticks out?

Headlands

9

What are the coastlines called that are in the way?

Bays

10

How is a cave formed on the headlands of the coast?

A cave is formed by the waves crashing the soft rock and creating a cave

11

How is an arch formed?

An arch is formed by waves crashing hard against the cave to form an arch

12

How is a sea stack formed?

A sea stack is formed by waves crashing against an arch until the land above collapses to form a stack

13

How is a stump formed?

A sea stump is when the stack takes too much pressure from the waves and collapses

14

Name three ways we can protect the coast

Groynes- wooden barriers built down the coast to stop sand moving
Sea wall- concrete walls built along the coast to protect the land from waves
Gabions- wire mesh baskets filled with cobbles. They can absorb waves and wind energy

15

What are the problems of protecting the coast?

By building groynes, another part of the coast doesn’t recieve sand so gets eroded quicker. Stone walls are really exspensive

16

How were scotlands hills formed?

When scotland was covered in ice during the ice age, the glaciers helped shape scotlands hills

17

Name four features that the ice formed during the ice age

Pyramidal peaks
Aretes
U-shaped valleys
Corries

18

What are pyramidal peaks?

Sharp pointed mountain summits

19

What are aretes?

Narrow, steep sided ridges

20

What are corries?

Steep sided hollows high on the mountain side

21

What are U-shaped valleys?

Steep-sided, flat floored valleys

22

Where are the most mountains found in Scotland?

North and West

23

Where is scotlands lowland mainly?

Central Scotland

24

What is in the southern uplands of Scotland?

Hilly areas with rounded summits and deep valleys

25

What are the two rivers near Aberdeen?

River Don and River Dee

26

What river goes through Glasgow?

River Clyde

27

Where are the Grampian mountains?

Central Scotland

28

Name two famous Scottish mountain peaks

Ben Nevis
Ben Macdui

29

What formed the mountains and hollows in Assynt?

Glaciers carved them out

30

How was Loch Lomond formed?

By an earthquake

31

What is a settlement?

A place where people live e.g. town, village, city.

32

What did a settlement need to grow?

A function or use

33

What sort of functions do city’s need?

Holiday resorts, shops leisure centres and tourist attractions

34

What three things would people need for choosing a place for their city?

Shelter from the wind
Supply of wood, water and building materials
Level land for building

35

Name three reasons Edinburgh has grown

Its situation on the Firth of Forth
Its trading links with the port of Leith
Jobs e.g. finance.

36

How many people live in Scotland?

5.1 million

37

What has happened to scotlands population since 1971?

It has decreased

38

Why is scotland so densely populated on the lowlands?

It is flat and easy to build on

39

Why are there less people in the northwest highlands of Scotland?

It is mountainous and the climate is often cold and windy

40

Name 3 problems of crofting

It is sparsely populated in crofting areas
The weather can be harsh and don’t know what to expect
Not much technology

41

Where is crofting?

Scottish Islands and northwest highlands

42

What is weather?

The state of atmosphere from day to day

43

What is climate?

The weather measured over years and the average worked out

44

Where is it the coldest in Scotland?

The north

45

Where is it the warmest in Scotland?

The south

46

Why is it wetter in the west than the east in Scotland?

There is more high land

47

Why did the romans pick the location for London?

It had good defence, dry land, water supply and good building materials

48

Name the four areas of London

The city
Westminster
The west end
The east end

49

What functions did London have?

Market town
Port
Transport
Holiday functions

50

What are the problems of living in london

Houses are expensive
Its noisy
Overcrowded trains
Traffic jams

51

What have people done to Make London better?

Old docks and houses have been cleared
Warehouses being turned into expensive flats