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Flashcards in geology 1 Deck (27):
1

what is matter

anything that contains mass and volume

2

what is an isotope

same atomic number but different number of neutrons

3

what criteria do minerals have to follow

naturally occurring
solid
definite chemical composition
defined atomic pattern
inorganic

4

2 types of luster

metallic and nonmetallic

5

what is a resource

a usable commodity
mineral resource-gold, silver, salt etc
fuel resource-coal,oil,natural gas, uranium etc

6

difference between renewable and non renewable

nonrenewable- limited around
renewable-infinite amount-trees,solar, wind

7

how is gold formed

igneous intrusions
deposited in veins
weathered out of vein then deposited in a river

8

how are diamond formed

kimberlite formations
extended deep in the earth

9

who is james hutton

the father of geology

10

3 rock types

igneous
metamorphic
sedimentary

11

two types of igneous rock and their characteristics

plutonic-form deep underground, from magma, contain large visible crystals
volcanic-form on the surface, from lava, contains small crystals

12

six types of igneous structures

laccolith-intrusive or extrusive
lava flow-extrusive
batholith-intrusive
stock-intrusive
dike-both
sill-both

13

two types of classification for igneous rocks for color

mafic-dark
felsic- light

14

what is a metamorphic rock

a pre-exsisting rock that changed though heat and pressure

15

3 metamorphic forces

heat-magma or lava in contact with overlying rocks
pressure-compression of rocks
hot fluids-magma heats water-new minerals form

16

what is a foliated rock

contains layers
caused by plate tectonics

17

what is weathering, and the two types of weathering

the break down of rock due to exposure to the atmosphere
mechanical/physical
chemical

18

types of mechanical weathering

frost wedging-water gets in cracks and freezes
frost heaving-water gets in pores and expands
exfoliation-sheets fall off exposed rocks
root wedging

19

3 types of chemical weathering

hydrolysis/hydration-reaction with water
oxidation-reaction with air
dissolution-reaction with acids

20

3 agents of erosion

water-rivers move sediment down stream
wind-wind moves sediment
glaciers-ice moves sediment down slope

21

2 types of sedimentary rocks

clastic-form from. weathering of pre exsisting rock
organic/chemical- for from plants/animals

22

what is sorting

describes the size distribution in a rock well sorted sediments-sediments are all similar size

23

what is rounding

transport of sediments smooths weathered sediments
angular
rounded
well-rounded

24

describe high and medium energy sedimentary environments

high energy- large grains, poorly sorted, alluvial fans, conglomerate, graded bedding
medium energy-moderately to well sorted, grain sized particles, rivers, beaches, deserts, sandstone, ripple marks or crossbeds

25

describe low and no energy sedimentary environments

low energy- lakes, swamps, fine clay kids , shale and coal, mud cracks and fossil plants
no energy- very little sediment, coral reefs, limestone, fossils

26

what are fossil fuels

coal,oil,natural gas
must be extracted
non-renewable
uses-electricity and transport

27

what is alternative energy

renewable with little or no pollution
electricity production
don’t require mining
not very reliable
wind, solar, hydroelectric