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Flashcards in Geology Deck (42):
1

Magma

Liquid rock that has not reached the earths surface

2

Igneous

Rocks that are formed in volcanos and shot out into the sky

3

Lava

Lava is a hot liquid that has reached the earths surface

4

Extrusive

Lava that has not exited the volcano

5

Intrusive

The lava that reaches the surface

6

Mineral

A naturally occurring substance

7

Crystal

Crystals form in nature when liquids cool down and start to harden.

8

Lithosphere

the outer part of the earth that is solid

9

Asthenosphere

the higher layer of the mantle

10

Sedimentary Rocks

rocks formed from sediments deposited by water, wind or ice. The sediments are cemented together in layers, under pressure.

11

Erosion

When waves smashed into rocks and erode them

12

Floodplains

open land that is close to a river were sediments are deposited

13

Glaciers

Large bodies of ice that push things in front of them

14

Moranies

deposit left by movement of a glacier

15

Sandstone

a sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains. The sand grains are cemented together by silica, lime or other salts.

16

Mudstone

a fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering

17

Shale

a fine-grained sedimentary rock formed in layers by the consolidation of clay

18

Siltstone

a sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mud stone

19

conglomerate

a sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mud stone

20

LimeStone

a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.

21

Coal

a sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

22

Rocksalt

a sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up. Its main chemical is sodium chloride.

23

Metamorphism

Rocks that go through a change

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Metamorphic

A transformation of a pre-existing rock

25

mineral ores

rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

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mining

extraction of natural resources from the Earth

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EIS

extraction of natural resources from the Earth

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rehabilitated

restored to its previous condition

29

overburden

waste rock removed from below the topsoil. This rock is replaced when the area is restored.

30

open cut mining

mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

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underground mining

mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface

32

Stone Age

he first known period of prehistoric human culture characterized by the use of stone tools

33

Alloy

a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements,

34

Flint

a hard grey rock consisting of nearly pure silica

35

Percussion Flaking

he shaping of a stone implement by striking or chipping off flakes with another stone

36

Fossil

any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

37

Folding

any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

38

Carnivores

animal that eats other animals

39

Scavenger

animals that eat dead plant and animal material

40

Mould

cavity in a rock that shows the shape of the hard parts of an organism

41

Trace Fossils

Fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed

42

Extinct

An animal that no longer exists