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Flashcards in Geology Deck (29):
1

Sedimentary Rocks

Rocks formed from sediments deposited by water, wind or ice. The sediments are cemented together in layers, under pressure.

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Erosion

The wearing away and removal of soil and rock by natural elements, such as wind, waves, rivers and ice, and by human activity

3

Floodplains

Flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

4

Glaciers

Large bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them

5

Moraines

Deposit left by movement of a glacier

6

Sandstone

A sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains. The sand grains are cemented together by silica, lime or other salts.

7

Mudstone

A fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering

8

Shale

A fine-grained sedimentary rock formed in layers by the consolidation of clay

9

Siltstone

A sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone

10

Conglomerate

Sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

11

Limestone

A sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.

12

Coal

A sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

13

Rock salt

A sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up. Its main chemical is sodium chloride.

14

Metamorphic rock

A metamorphic rock is a type of rock which has been changed by extreme heat and pressure

15

Metamorphism

Alteration of the composition or structure of a rock by heat, pressure, or other natural agency.

16

Mineral Ores

Rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

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Mining

Extraction of natural resources from the Earth

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Environmental impact statement

Study of the possible effects of a planned project on the environment

19

Rehabilitated

Restored to its previous condition

20

Overburden

Waste rock removed from below the topsoil. This rock is replaced when the area is restored.

21

Fossil

Any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

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Folding

The buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

23

Palaeontologists

A scientist who studies fossils

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Relative age

The age of a rock compared with the age of another rock

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Carnivores

Animal that eats other animals

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Scavengers

Animals that eat dead plant and animal material

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Mould

Cavity in a rock that shows the shape of the hard parts of an organism; types of fungi found growing on the surface of foods

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Trace fossils

Fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed

29

Extinct

Describes volcanoes that are no longer active. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted for thousands of years and show no sign of future eruption.