German: Blood and Hematopoiesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in German: Blood and Hematopoiesis Deck (19):
1

What percentage of blood is plasma?

55%

2

What percent of blood is RBCs?

45%

3

What percentage of plasma is water?

92%

4

How many RBCs are in one microliter of blood?

4-5 million

5

How many WBCs are in one microliter of blood?

3,500-10,000

6

How many platelets are in one microliter of blood?

150,000-450,000

7

What are the two major lines or precursors to blood cells?

Lymphoid: (Adaptive immunity) B cells, T cells, NK cellsMyeloid: (innate immunity) monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, platelets and RBCs.

8

What is the lifespan of an RBC?

120 days

9

How many RBCs are replaced daily in a percentage?

1-2%

10

What are the properties and functions of a neutrophil?

1. Primary inflammatory cell2. granulocyte3. Multi-lobed nuclei4. antimicrobial granules5. Does several effector mechanisms like phagocytosis, degranulation, and net formation.6. restricted to vasculature7. must be recruited to sites for inflammation.

11

What are the functions of granulocytes?

They release antimicrobial peptides. They predominantly reside in peripheral tissue. respond to parasites and worms.

12

What are the types of granules that granulocytes release?

1. antimicrobials2. Neurotransmitters3. Pro-inflammatory signals4. Growth factors

13

What are the functions of monocytes?

They activate the adaptive immune system. They differentiate into dendrocytes and macrophages. They kill pathogens and clear debris.

14

What are the three mechanisms of hemostasis?

1. Vascular constriction2. Platelet plug3. Coagulation

15

What are the steps of the coagulation pathway?

1. Prothrombin to Thrombin: done by prothrombin activator and calcium2. Fibrinogen to Fibrin Monomer: Done by thrombin3. Fibrin monomer to Fibrin fibers: done with aid of calcium.4. Fibrin fibers to Cross-linked fibrin fibers: done by thrombin and activated fibrin-stabilizing factors

16

What is the rate limiting step of coagulation?

Prothrombin activator

17

What is serum?

Plasma with clotting factors removed

18

What are the two pathways to produce prothrombin activator?

Intrinsic Pathway: Begins in the bloodExtrinsic pathway: Begins at site of tissue trauma

19

What is essential in the making of prothrombin activator?

Vitamin K mostly but also calcium