Flashcards in GERMANY Deck (27)
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
1903/1905 The idea to avoid a two front war by going west first and then dealing with the threat from Russia
Why did Germany loose WWI?
- They failed to achieve rapid victory in the summer of 1914
- The balance of powers caused a Stalemate
- Strengths of the Allies
- Limitations of German war economy
- Failure of the final offensive in March 1918
What increased the social discomfort of the German people?
- Food and fuel shortage- turnip winter
- Civilian deaths (121,000 in 1916 and 293,000 in 1918)
- Infant mortality- Spanish flu killed 20 million
- Inflation- prices doubled by wages only rose by 50-75%
- Casualties - 2 million Germans killed, with 6 million injured
What did Ludendorff want to do?
He wanted to change Germany from an autocracy into an constitutional monarchy (a more democratic government while maintaining the monarchy)
What was Ludendorff's ulterior motive?
There was a need to shift away from military leadership and the conservative elite onto a new leadership
Who was Phillip Scheidemann?
Social democrat who declared Germany a republic on the 9th November 1918
When was Germany declared a republic?
9th November 1918
Who was Rosa Luxemburg?
Founder of the Spartacus League and helped to create the German communist party
What were the three main strands of the Left Wing movement in 1918?
- The SPD-German social Democratic Party- the largest party in the Reichstag from 1912- rejected soviet style communism-over a million members
- The spartacists - led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht- Marxist theory supported the rising of the proletariat- membership of 5000
The USPD- independent German Social Democratic Party
-radical social and economic change and political reforms- internally divided- 300,000 members
What were Ebert's socieconomic problems?
- Inflation- wages were falling behind prices
- Fuel and food shortages
- The Spanish flu
What were the Left Wing opposition groups that threatened Ebert’s coalition?
- Strike action increased from the autumn of 1918
- German communist inspired by the Russian revolution wanted a German revolution
- Workers’ and soldiers’ councils were created and wanted change
What were the Right Wing opposition groups that threatened Ebert’s coalition?
- Freikorps- right wing nationalist soldiers were forming paramilitary units
- The German army was generally conservative but embittered by the military defeat
- Nationalists- were deeply against the abdication of the Kaiser and didn't support the creation of the new republic
What were the Military problems that threatened Ebert's coalition?
- Demobilisation- 1.5 million soldiers needed to be returned to Germany
- Allied blockade- the naval blockade was not removed even after the armistice until June 1919
- Peace terms- public concerns about the nature of the peace treaty
What was the Stinnes-legien agreement?
Trade unions made a commitment not to interfere with private ownership and the free market in return for workers’ committees an 8 hour working day and full legal recognition
When was the Spartacist Revolt?
What were the consequences of the Spartacist Revolt?
- A troubled atmosphere
- Continuation of strikes and street disorder in Berlin meant that the Assembly's first meeting was moved
- Triggered the Red Bavaria where a short-lived Soviet-type republic was established
What were the powers of the president in the Weimar Republic?
- The right to dissolve the Reichstag
- The appointment of the chancellor
- Supreme commander of the armed forces
- Article 4 which allows him to rule by decree in the case of emergency
What were the Two houses in the Weimar?
- The Reichstag
- The Reichsrat
What are the issues of the Weimar Constitution?
Article 48 and the relationship between the Reichstag and the president
Traditional institutions were allowed to continue
What were the Traditional Institutions?
- Civil service tended to conform with the conservative values of imperial values
- Judiciary retained its independence but many judges were unsupportive of the new system
- The army enjoyed greater status and was linked with the Junkers
What were the reasons for the failure of the Red Threat?
- Bad co-ordination-couldn't organise a united attack
- Poor leadership- the freikorps removed some of its ablest and spririted leaders
- Concessions- the Weimar played on the internal difference of the extreme left
- Repression- authorities systematically repressed the rebels with considerable brutality
What were the ideologies of the extreme right?
- Anti democracy
- Anti Marxism
- Nationalism (reinforced the stab in the back myth)
Why could the Kapp Putsch be viewed as a major success for the Weimar?
Over the six day crisis, they had retained support from the people of Berlin and withstood a major threat from the extreme right
What is the evidence to suggest that there was a bias towards those involved in the Putsch?
- Luttwitz was granted early retirement
- 1 of the 705 prosecuted was found guilty and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment
Who was in charge of the 1923 government of Bavaria?
Gustaf von Kahr- ultra-conservative
Who was in charge of the Army in 1923?
General von Lossow