Gerund And gerundive Flashcards Preview

2nd Moreland and Fleischer > Gerund And gerundive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gerund And gerundive Deck (35):
1

How to form the gerund

Nagda

N: infinitive
AGDA: present stem + nd + neuter endings of second declension
(-ie- appears before the -nd- for 3rd i-stems and 4th declension)
--only in singular

Deligere
Deligendum
Deligendi
Deligendo
Deligendo

2

Grammatical function of the gerund

Verbal noun
- may control an object
- may be modified by an adverb
- intransitive verbs that govern the dative will do so in the gerund case Also

3

Legendo legere discimus

We learn to read by (means of) reading

(Ablative of means)

4

Cupidus legendi est

He is desirous of reading

(Objective genitive -with cupidus-)

5

Duci libenter parendo fortiores fiemus

By obeying the leader willingly, We shall become stronger

(Ablative of means; intransitive verb governing dative)

6

The Gerundive is

Verbal adjective
It is the future passive participle

7

How is the gerundive formed

Present stem + nd + us/a/um

Deligendus -a -um

8

governing an object

Gerund can govern an object
But a gerundive is better

9

By reading books we learn to read

Gerund: libros legendo legere discimus
Better -> Gerundive: libris legendis legere discimus (by means of books to-be-read we learn to read)

10

He is desirous of reading books

Gerund: cupidus libros legendi est
Better -> gerundive: cupidus librorum legendorum est (he is desirous of books to-be-read)

11

How to express purpose with Gerund/Gerundive ("for the purpose of")

Ad + accusative
Ad + accusative Gerund

12

Ad legendum venit

He comes to reading
He comes for the purpose of reading
He comes in order to read

13

He comes to read books

Gerund: ad legendum libros venit
Better (because gerund taking an object) -> gerundive: ad libros legendos venit (he comes for the purpose of reading books; he comes to books to-be-read)

14

How to express "for the sake of" (purpose)

Genitive gerund + causa

15

He comes for the sake of reading

Legendi causa venit (he comes to read)

16

He comes for the sake of reading books

Gerund: Libros legendi causa venit (he comes to read books)
Better -> Gerundive: librorum legendorum causa venit (he comes to read books; he comes the sake of books to-be-read

Gerundive not used when governing neuter adjectives or pronouns

17

Three ways of saying he comes to read books

Ad libros legendos venit
Librorum legendorum causa venit
Venit ut libros legat (he comes in order that he may read books)

18

Why is there an exception for Gerundive being preferred to Gerund when governing an object

He comes to see many things

Exception: neuter adjectives and pronouns

Confusion in gender

1) Multa videndi causa venit
2) multorum videendorum causa venit
2: he comes to see many things/men, it is unclear whether gender is masculine or neuter

19

When is the gerund needed

It is a verbal noun

Needed When the verbal noun (infinitive) is not functioning as the subject of a verb.


20

Accusative of the gerund

Usually follows the preposition ad (sometimes ob)

This expresses purpose

21

Genitive of the gerund

Depends on some abstract substantives (ars, occasio, facultas, potestas, studium, causa, initium, finis, signum, tempus) and on adjectives (peritus, cupidus, studiosus)
- these take a genitive

22

The art of writing is learnt

Ars scribendi discitur

23

Eager to go

Eundi studiosus

24

Dative of the gerund

Used with a few
verbs: (operam do, diem statuo, comitia indico)
Adjectives: (idoneus, aptus, accomodatus, necessarius, par)
Substantives implying help, use, fitness

25

Ablative of the gerund

Without preposition: instrument or cause
Or with In, ab, de, ex

26

Main reasons gerundive is used rather than gerund

To avoid direct object with
-the dative of the gerund
-the accusative of the gerund with a preposition
-the ablative of the gerund with a preposition

With genitive and simple ablative you can find both gerund and gerundive indifferently....but gerundive is preferred

27

Turn to gerundive
Libros legendo legere discimus (but this is fine)

Libris legendis legere discimus

28

Turn to gerundive
Cupidus libros legendi est (but this is fine)

Cupidus librorum legendorum est

29

Turn to gerundive
Spem vincendi hostem (but this is fine)

Spem vincendi hostis

30

Turn to gerundive
Venit AD pacem PETENDUM (not ok)

Veni ad pacem petendum

31

Turn to gerundive
Tempus ARANDO AGROS accomodatum (not ok)

Tempus AGRIS ARANDIS accomodatum

32

Turn to gerundive
Brutus IN LIBERANDO patriam est interfectus

Brutus in liberanda patria est interfectus

33

Even in the cases when the gerund shouldnt be used when is it still preferred

The object is a neuter pronoun or adjective
The gerundive construction involves genitive plurals

34

Turn to GERUND
consilium alicuius rei faciendi (not ok)

Consilium aliquid faciendi

35

Turn to GERUND
Amicorum videndorum causa venit (not ok)

Amicos videndi causa venit