The change in temperature of a mass without adding or subtracting heat. Examples are cooling with expansion and warming upon compression.
The reflectivity of a body; for Earth, how much solar radiation is reflected back to space.
A region of high atmospheric pressure and outflowing air that rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
Before the common era. Equivalent to BC.
Long-term processes: Ice ages, droughts, atmosphere changes, ocean circulation shifts, etc.
A process of heat transfer whereby hot material at depth rises upward due to its lower density while cooler material above sinks because of its higher density.
Moving objects experience earth move out from beneath them; in the northern hemisphere, bodies move towards their right-hand side, while in the southern hemisphere, they move toward their left.
Moving objects experience Earth move out from beneath them; in the northern hemisphere, bodies move toward the right-hand side, while in the southern hemisphere, they move toward their left.
A region of low atmospheric pressure and converging air that rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
Dew point temperature
The air temperature when the relative humidity of an air mass reaches 100% and excess water vapor condenses to liquid water.
A boundary separating masses of different temperature and moisture content.
The buildup of heat beneath substances such as glass, water vapor, and carbon dioxide that allow incoming, short-wavelength solar radiation to pass through, but block the return of long-wavelength radiation.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1°C.
A measure of the amount of water vapor in an air mass.
The solar powered cycle in which water is evaporated from the oceans, dumped on the land as rain and snow, and pulled by gravity back to the oceans as glaciers, streams, and groundwater. It drives the erosion process.
Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
The zone where collision occurs between the trade winds of the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Amount of solar radiation received at any area on Earth.
An electrically charged atom or group of atoms.
A map line connecting points of equal pressure.
Fast-moving belts of air in the upper troposphere that flow towards the east.
A unit of pressure equal to 0.1 millibar.
The rate at which Earth's atmosphere cools with increasing altitude, or warms with decreasing altitude due to change in pressure.
The energy absorbed or released during a change of state.
Latent heat of fusion
Describes the direction of energy flow as changing from solid to liquid. Water releases about 80 cal per gram when it freezes. In reverse, ice absorbs about 80 cal per gram when it melts.
Latent heat of vaporization
Water absorbs about 600 cal per gram when it is evaporates. This stored heat is released during condensation.
Lifting condensation level
The altitude in the atmosphere where rising air cools to saturation (100% humidity) and condensation begins.
(1) The mantle from the base of the asthenosphere to the top of the core. (2) The atmospheric layer above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere.
A unit of atmospheric pressure. At sea level, the pressure is about 1,013 mbar.
Winds that reverse direction seasonally. In summer, warm air rises above hot land, drawing in rain-bearing winds from over the ocean. In winter, the flow reverses.
Cool, dense air over the poles flows along the surface to about 60° latitude where it is warm and moist enough to rise at the subpolar lows and flow back toward the poles at higher altitudes.
Pressure gradient force
Perpendicular to the air pressure isobars on a map is a gradient or slope of pressure change. Air flows from high to low pressure.
Heat carried by conduction or convection in air, water, or rock.
Energy emitted from the sun mostly in the infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet wavelengths.
The amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1°C.
The stable atmospheric layer above the troposphere.
Changing from solid to gas without passing through a liquid phase.
The attractive force between molecules at a surface.
The flow of deep ocean waters made denser by coldness (Thermo) and saltiness (haline).
The top of the troposphere.
The lowest layer of the atmosphere, ranging from 18 km (11 mi) thick at the equator to 8 km (5 mi) thick at the polls.
Short-term processes: thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, etc.
How does the amount of energy flowing from the interior of earth compare to the energy received from the sun?
The total amount of the energy flowing from Earth's interior to the surface is miniscule compared to the solar radiation received from the sun.
How does the sun heat the Earth?
The energy flowing from Earth's interior is minuscule compared to the solar radiation received from the Sun. It is about 4000 times greater than the heat flow from Earth.
How does weather differ from climate?
Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get.
Explain the greenhouse effect.
The solar radiation reaching Earth is absorbed and this raises the temperatures of land, water, and vegetation. When access heat is radiated upward from Earth's surface, it is at long wavelengths that can be absorbed by gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. Following this absorption, most of the energy is radiated back down to Earth's surface; this is the greenhouse effect, and it warms the climate of Earth.
Name some important greenhouse gasses.
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane.
What is the albedo (reflectance) of snow compared to that of bare ground?
Snow and ice increase albedo.
Explain how the hydrologic cycle operates. What are the roles of the Sun and gravity?
The heat from the sun evaporates water, while plants transpire water into the atmosphere. The atmospheric moisture condenses and precipitates snow and rain. Some falls on the land and then is pulled back to sea by gravity as glaciers or rivers, and via underground water flow.
What properties make water so peculiar?
1. Water is the only substance on Earth that is present in vast quantities in all states.2. Water has a remarkable ability to absorb heat. 3. Water is a bipolar molecule. This means water can readily bond with charged ions. 4. It has the highest surface tension of all liquids 5. Water expands about 9% when it freezes.
How is latent heat important in moving energy through the atmosphere?
Water absorbs, stores, and releases tremendous amounts of energy when it changes phases. It's latent heat helps move energy through the atmosphere.
Is latent heat absorbed or released during A) Melting B) Freezing C)Evaporation D)Condensation?
A) Melting-absorbed B) Freezing- released C)Evaporation- absorbed D)Condensation- released
Explain the adiabatic cooling that occurs in a rising air mass.
Occurs when an air mass rises and expands.
Is the lapse rate in a rising mass of air greater in dry or moist air?
Draw a cross section through the atmosphere that defines troposphere, tropopause, and stratosphere.
Use the terms high pressure, low pressure, and pressure gradient force to explain how winds form.
Air flows along the pressure gradient from higher to lower pressure.
Why is the Coriolis effect always to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere?
Air rises at a low-pressure zone in the Northern Hemisphere; it is fed by counterclockwise surface winds. Descending air at a high-pressure zone flows over the ground surface as clockwise winds.
Why is there so much rainfall at the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)?
Water vapor picked by trade winds as they flowed over land and sea is carried upward at the ITCZ in the rising limb of the Hadley cell, where water vapor condenses and contributes to heavy rainfalls.
What are the relationships between high- and low-pressure zones and between cyclones and anticyclones?
What causes the global circulation if water deep within the ocean?
What causes the surface circulation of water throughout the oceans?
It is driven mostly by winds. It is also affected by the Coriolis effect and deflection off continents.
How does the air flow differ from winter to summer?