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Flashcards in GI Deck (51)
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1

Name the four quadrants of the GI system

Right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ).

2

What is the one body part that goes through all four quadrants?

Intestines

3

Name the organs in the RUQ

Liver, gallbladder, duodenum, hepatic flexure of colon, pancreatic head, ascending/transverse colon, right kidney

4

Name the organs in the RLQ

Cecum, appendix, right ovary & fallopian tube, right ureter & spermadic cord

5

Name the organs in the LUQ

Stomach, spleen, body of pancreas, left kidney, splenic flexure of colon, transverse/descending colon

6

Name the organs in the LLQ

Descending and sigmoid colon, left ovary & fallopian tube, left ureter & spermadic cord

7

Bony landmarks on the anterior body include:

Xiphoid process of sternum, costal margin, midline, umbilicus, anterior iliac spine, superior margin of pubis

8

What is a good posterior landmark?

The costovertebral angle. This is the back version of the costal angle)

9

What is dysphasia?

Chewing or swallowing difficulties

10

When is dysphasia common?

Post-stroke

11

What is eructation?

Belching

12

What is pyrosis?

Heartburn

13

What are some problems that can happen with digestion?

- Eructation (Belching)
- Pyrosis (Heartburn)
- Nausea with and without emesis

14

Characteristics of vomitus: What is usually happening when you see frank blood?

Usually related to esophageal bleeding

15

Characteristics of vomitus: What is usually happening when you see fecal matter?

This is rare, but can be from blockage

16

Characteristics of vomitus: What is usually happening when you see coffee ground looking material?

Usually with bleeding, acid in stomach

17

S/s of constipation:

Fecal matter is hard, small, < 3 x/week, difficult to pass

18

What can happen as a result of constipation?

hemorrhoids

19

Questions to ask about dentition and swallowing:

- Do they have teeth? Do their dentures fit? Are the dentures theirs?

20

What does it mean to PQRST something in regards to pain?

P stands for palliative or precipitating factors, Q for quality of pain, R for region or radiation of pain, S for subjective descriptions of pain, and T for temporal nature of pain (the time the pain occurs).

21

What is referred pain?

Pain which manifests at a site distant from the actual pathology

22

General tips for abdominal assessment:

- The patient should have an empty bladder
- The patient should be lying supine appropriately draped
- The examination room must be quiet to perform adequate auscultation and percussion
- Watch the patient's face for signs of discomfort during the exam!

23

The sequence of assessment is different for GI What is the correct sequence here?

- Inspect
- Auscultate
- Percuss
- Palpate

24

What does scaphoid mean?

Concave (as in the shape of the stomach upon inspecition)

25

What does protuberant mean?

Bulging (as in the shape of the stomach upon inspecition)

26

Things to note with abdominal distention?

- Note position of umbilicus
- Note portion of abdomen that is distended
- Reasons for distention: fat, flatus (gas), feces, fluid (ascites),fetus

27

If the umbilicus is pushed out with distention, what might you suspect is the cause?

Fluid

28

If the umbilicus is positioned inward with distention, what might you suspect is the cause?

Ascites

29

What is Cullen's sign?

Purple around umbilicus. High urgency. Some sort of bleeding.

30

What causes spider angiomas ?

Common with liver disease, esp cirrhosis

31

T/F It is normal to see pulsations with pale skin and a thin abdomen?

True

32

If you see a mass, should you palpate or not palpate?

JUST SAY NO

33

What is hematochezia?

Bleeding in the rectum, bright red.

34

When fecal matter is tinged maroon/dark red, what might you suspect?

Bleeding in lower parts of the intestine

35

When fecal matter is tinged red, what might you suspect?

Bleeding in the rectum (hematochezia )or occasionally from rapid or large amt of bleeding in GI tract

36

When fecal matter is black, not sticky, and with no odor what might you suspect?

Iron or bismuth containing medications (Pepto Bismol)

37

When fecal matter is black, tarry, and with foul odor what might you suspect?

RED FLAG. Bleeding in stomach or upper part of small intestine.

38

What does melena refer to (with stool)?

Black stool

39

When fecal matter is clay-colored and/or pale, what might you suspect?

Contains little or no bile – diseases or obstructions that cause obstruction of flow of bile to the intestines

40

When fecal matter is yellow, greasy and with a foul smell , what might you suspect?

Presence of undigested fat – diseases pancreas (reduced enzymes to

41

What is the main thing you want to check when you are assessing an ostomy?

The stoma

42

T/F: The look of your stool will depend on the ostomy you have.

True

43

What is hematemesis?

Vomiting of blood

44

When auscultating the abdomen, where do you begin?

Start at ileocecal valve & continue clockwise using diaphragm

45

How long should you spend in each quadrant?

15-20 seconds

46

How many clicks/gurgles per minutes is normal?

5-34

47

If you about to listen to bowel sounds on someone who has an NG tube, what should you do?

Turn off or pinch

48

How long should you technically listen before documenting absent bowel sounds?

3-5 minutes

49

What are you testing for when you ask the patient to turn to one side, then percuss from tympany to dullness; fluid will sink to lowest point.

Used with ascites: Testing for “shifting dullness,” ask patient to turn to one side, then percuss from tympany to dullness; fluid will sink to lowest point. “Positive for shifting dullness.”

50

When assessing for a fluid wave how much fluid is needed to be present before this is detected?

Detected after >500 ml fluid accumulated

51

What is the difference between tenderness and pain?

-Tenderness is discomfort caused or increased by their examination (a sign)
-Pain on the other hand, is something the patient tells you about as part of the history (a symptom)