Flashcards in GI-2 Deck (31):
Congenital pyloric stenosis is AKA?
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
When does congenital pyloric stenosis present itself and what is the cause?
Presents itself by the end of the 1st month and has an unknown cause,first born
How does CPS present itself and how is it treated?
Presents as projectile vomiting and is treated by pyloromyotomy
Acute gastritis is characterized by what cell?
Chronic gastritis is characterized by what cells?
Plasma cells and lymphocytes
H. pylori is associated with acute or chronic gastritis?
Who is allergic acute gastritis seen in?
Children and young adults
How does allergic gastritis present itself? How is it treated
Vomiting, diarrhea, failure to thrive. Treated with steroids and diet modification
What is the histologic landmark of allergic gastritis?
Tissue marked with eosinophils
H. pylori uses what enzyme to neutralize acid?
In autoimmune atrophic gastritis, antibodies are made to what cell?
The fundus takes on the appearance of?
What are the 4 causes of gastropathy?
Bile reflux from duodenum
What is peptic ulcer disease?
Chronic ulcers of the 1st part of the duodenum or the distal stomach (astral/pyloric)
The major cause of peptic ulcer disease is?
H. pylori ***see slide 22
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome can lead to what tumors?
Tumors in the pancreatic islet cells in the pancreas or GI system that secrete gastrin
The excess gastrin leads to?
Increased acid production and ulcers
What are the 3 most common types of gastric cancer?
2. Adenocarcinoma involving glandular epithelial cells
3. GIST or gastrointestinal stromal tumor
What causes gastric cancer?
Anything that injures the stomach such as H. pylori or dietary factors
What are two genetic factors that can cause gastric cancer?
HNPCC or hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer
FAP familial adenomatous polyposis
Syndrome that causes defective replication of DNA leading to adenocarcinoma in stomach and mostly colon
Deactivates tumor suppressor genes, seen again mainly in colon cancer but also gastric
How does signet ring-cell carcinoma grow?
In a diffuse manner unlike regular adenocarcinoma which grows as a discrete mass
What type of lymphoma is common to the GI tract?
MALT, type of B-cell lymphoma
GIST comes from what cells?
Interstitial cells of Cajal, can occur anywhere in the GI tract but usually in the stomach
Is GIST always malignant?
All gists have malignant potential but aren't necessarily malignant
What are bezoars?
Accumulations of foreign material in the stomach that form concretions
How can you get bezoars?
Surgery with outlet obstruction or spontaneously
What cells are present in the fundus and what do they make?
Parietal cells secrete acid and chief cells make pepsin
What cells are present in the antrum that make gastrin?