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Flashcards in GI-2 Deck (31):
1

Congenital pyloric stenosis is AKA?

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

2

When does congenital pyloric stenosis present itself and what is the cause?

Presents itself by the end of the 1st month and has an unknown cause,first born

3

How does CPS present itself and how is it treated?

Presents as projectile vomiting and is treated by pyloromyotomy

4

Acute gastritis is characterized by what cell?

Neutrophils

5

Chronic gastritis is characterized by what cells?

Plasma cells and lymphocytes

6

H. pylori is associated with acute or chronic gastritis?

Chronic

7

Who is allergic acute gastritis seen in?

Children and young adults

8

How does allergic gastritis present itself? How is it treated

Vomiting, diarrhea, failure to thrive. Treated with steroids and diet modification

9

What is the histologic landmark of allergic gastritis?

Tissue marked with eosinophils

10

H. pylori uses what enzyme to neutralize acid?

Urease

11

In autoimmune atrophic gastritis, antibodies are made to what cell?

Parietal cells

12

The fundus takes on the appearance of?

The antrum

13

What are the 4 causes of gastropathy?

Alcohol
GERD
NSAIDS
Bile reflux from duodenum

14

What is peptic ulcer disease?

Chronic ulcers of the 1st part of the duodenum or the distal stomach (astral/pyloric)

15

The major cause of peptic ulcer disease is?

H. pylori ***see slide 22

16

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome can lead to what tumors?

Tumors in the pancreatic islet cells in the pancreas or GI system that secrete gastrin

17

The excess gastrin leads to?

Increased acid production and ulcers

18

What are the 3 most common types of gastric cancer?

1. Lymphoma
2. Adenocarcinoma involving glandular epithelial cells
3. GIST or gastrointestinal stromal tumor

19

What causes gastric cancer?

Anything that injures the stomach such as H. pylori or dietary factors

20

What are two genetic factors that can cause gastric cancer?

HNPCC or hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer

FAP familial adenomatous polyposis

21

Describe HNPCC?

Syndrome that causes defective replication of DNA leading to adenocarcinoma in stomach and mostly colon

22

Describe FAP

Deactivates tumor suppressor genes, seen again mainly in colon cancer but also gastric

23

How does signet ring-cell carcinoma grow?

In a diffuse manner unlike regular adenocarcinoma which grows as a discrete mass

24

What type of lymphoma is common to the GI tract?

MALT, type of B-cell lymphoma

25

GIST comes from what cells?

Interstitial cells of Cajal, can occur anywhere in the GI tract but usually in the stomach

26

Is GIST always malignant?

All gists have malignant potential but aren't necessarily malignant

27

What are bezoars?

Accumulations of foreign material in the stomach that form concretions

28

How can you get bezoars?

Surgery with outlet obstruction or spontaneously

29

What cells are present in the fundus and what do they make?

Parietal cells secrete acid and chief cells make pepsin

30

What cells are present in the antrum that make gastrin?

G cells

31

What is a common consequence of chronic gastritis?

Intestinal metaplasia