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Flashcards in GI Deck (49):
1

Olive mass, Projectile vomiting

Congenital pyloric stenosis

2

Duodenal Atresia genetics

Trisomy 21

3

Most common Tracheoesophageal anomaly

Esophageal atresia with distal Tracheoesophageal fistula (85%)

4

Annular Pancreas

Ventral pancreatic bud abnormally encircles 2nd p duodenum, may cause narrowing

5

Pancreas Divisum

Ventral and Dorsal parts fail to fuse at 8 weeks

6

Retroperitoneal structures

SAD PUCKER
(Suprarenal gland, Aorta & IVC, Duodenum (2 & 3), Pancreas, Ureters, Colon (asc & des), Kidneys, Esophagus, Rectum)

7

Pringle Maneuver

Compress Hepatoduodenal ligament (contains portal triad) to control bleeding

8

Gut wall layers

-Mucosa
-Submucosa (w/ Meissner's (secretory) Plexus)
-Muscularis externa (w/ Auerbach's (motility) Plexus)
-Serosa

9

Crypts of Lieberkuhn

-Goblet cells & Enterocytes

10

Brunner's Glands

-Proximal Duodenum submucosa
-Secrete bicarbonate to alkalize chyme

11

SMA syndrome

Duodenum (3) is trapped between SMA and aorta -> intestinal obstruction

12

Pectinate line

Endoderm meets Ectoderm

13

Sphincter of Oddi

Just inside Ampulla of Vater

14

Inguinal hernias: Direct v. Indirect

Abdominal wall v. Internal inguinal ring (into scrotum)

15

Femoral hernia

-Below inguinal ligament
-Leading cause of bowel incarceration

16

Rectal adenocarcinoma presentation

Tenesmus & thin stool

17

Ulcerative colitis presentation

Recurrent grossly bloody stool and low grade fever

18

Left-sided colon cancer presentation

Abdominal cramps, distention, nausea

19

Irritable bowel syndrome presentation

Constipation alternating with diarrhea

20

Right-sided colon cancer presentation

Weight loss and progressive fatigue

21

Calories per gram

4,9,4,7

22

Organism most likely to infect with a very small innoculum

Shigella
-Also C.jejuni, C.perfringens, E.histolytica, G.lamblia

23

Ribavirin MOA, SE

Inhibit viral DNA/RNA replication
Hemolytic anemia, teratogen

24

Stimulate HCl release from parietal cells

Gastrin (+proliferate), Histamine, Acetylcholine

25

Inhibit HCl release from parietal cells

PGE2

26

Whipple disease stain

PAS (glycoprotein)

27

Diphenoxylate
Meperidine

Opioid analgesic - lowers motility, tx diarrhea

28

Octreotide

Secretory diarrhea

29

D-xylose absorption

Normal in pancreatic pathology
Decreased in intestinal pathology

30

Rose spots

Typhoid fever (S. typhi)

31

Celiac antibody

IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase

32

Cystic fibrosis

Mucus plugs of lungs, liver, pancreas
Meconium ileus in newborns
Nasal polyps

33

Cystic fibrosis susceptibility

Pseudomonas
Staph aureus

34

VIPoma

WDHA syndrome (Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, Achlorhydia)
Tx with Somatostatin (octreotide)

35

Anal fissure location

Posterior midline, distal to dentate line

36

Portal HTN Tx

TIPS (Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt)

37

Ischemia liver zone

Zone 3 (centrilobular)

38

Viral hepatitis liver zone

Zone 1 (periportal)

39

Alcohol toxicity liver zone

Zone 3 (centrilobular)

40

Sliding hiatal hernia

Upward displaced GE junction
Hourglass stomach

41

Paraesophageal hernia

Normal GE junction
Fundus protrudes into thorax

42

Hesselbach's triangle

Direct inguinal hernia
(inferior epigastrics, inguinal ligament, lateral border of rectus abdominis

43

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrinoma
-Hyperacidity
-Rugal thickening (G cell hyperplasia)

44

Gastrin - source, action, regulation

G cells (antrum)
-Gastric H+, gastric motility, gastric growth
-Distention, food, vagus; Decreased by acidity

45

CCK - source, action, regulation

I cells (duodenum, jejunum)
-Pancreatic secretion, gallbladder contraction, decrease gastric emptying
-Fatty acids, AAs

46

Secretin - source, action, regulation

S cells (duodenum)
-Pancreatic bicarb secretion, bile secretion, decrease gastric H+ secretion
-Acid, FAs in duodenum

47

Somatostatin - source, action, regulation

D cells (pancreatic islets, GI mucosa)
-Decrease gastric/pancreatic/intestine secretion, gallbladder contraction, insulin/glucagon release
-Acid, decreased by vagus

48

VIP (Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) - source, action, regulation

Parasym ganglia in sphincters, GB, and small intestine
-Intestinal secretions, sphincter relaxation
-Distention, vagus; decreased by adrenergic input

49

Motilin - source, action, regulation

Small intestine
-Produces MMCs (migrating motor complexes)
-Fasting