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Flashcards in GI Deck (26):
1

what is present in intestinal juice?

water
mucus
enzymes (carbs, proteins, nucleotide digesting)
1-2 L /day

2

what are brunner's glands?

secretes alkaline mucus in the small intestine

3

what muscularis layer is responsible for moving the chyme down the GI tract?

longitudinal

4

how long does it take for food to move through the GI?

2 hrs from stomach to ileum

5

where does chemical digestion end?

small intestine

6

what is the pathway of carb digestion?

mouth (salivary amylase)
duodenum (pancreatic amylase)
brush border (alpha-extrinase, sucrase, lactase, maltase)
glucose is final product
enter capillary bed and go to liver

7

what is the pathway of protein digestion?

stomach (pepsin)
duodenum (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, elastase)
brush border (aminopeptidase, dipeptidase)
amino acids are final products
enter capillary bed and go to liver

8

what is the pathway of lipid digestion?

mouth (lipases)
stomach (lipase)
duodenum (bile salts emulsify-mechanical process, pancreatic lipase)
brush border (micelle and chylomicron)
enters lacteal-thoracic duct-L subclavian vein

9

what is a micelle?

made up of fatty acids and bile salts that is present in the lumen

10

what is a chylomicron?

recombination of triglyceride inside the cell that gets extruded into the lacteal

11

what is lipoprotein lipase?

allows fat molecules to get back in the cell

12

which are the 4 fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

13

what is secondary active transport?

crossing of nutrients that relies on a second active pump (usually sodium)

14

what is primary absorber of nutrients?

small intestine

15

what is the teniae coli?

smooth muscle that runs along the large intestine

16

what are the haustrum?

pouches of the large intestine

17

what is the function of large intestine?

completion of absorption
production of some vitamins
formation and expulsion of feces

18

which parts of colon are retroperitoneal?

ascending and descending sections

19

what type of muscle is the internal sphincter?

smooth

20

what type of muscle is the external sphincter?

skeletal

21

what is the primary focus of microvilli of large intestines?

absorb water

22

what is the thickest layer of the GI tract?

mucosa

23

what are the major roles of the bacteria in the large intestine?

1. ferment any remaining carbohydrates
2. convert remaining protein
3. compose bilirubin to stercobilin
4. metabolize vitamins K and some B

24

what are the 3 major branches of celiac trunk?

1. common hepatic
2. splenic (big one)
3. left gastric

25

what does the superior mesenteric supply blood to?

all small intestine
most of large intestine (through middle of transverse colon)

26

what does the inferior mesenteric supply blood to?

rest of large intestine (transverse colon to the end)

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