GI Agents, Nutrition & Electrolyte Replacement, Herbal Therapy Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > GI Agents, Nutrition & Electrolyte Replacement, Herbal Therapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Agents, Nutrition & Electrolyte Replacement, Herbal Therapy Deck (85):
1

drugs that act by coating the wall of the GI tract and absorbing bacteria or toxins that cause diarrhea (EX: kaolin, pectin, Pepto-Bismol)

Adsorbents

2

the active ingredients in marijuana approved for clinical use to alleviate nausea & vomiting resulting from cancer treatment

Cannabinoids

3

drugs used to eliminate fecal matter; "laxative"

Carthartics

4

cerebral center lying near the medulla that causes vomiting when stimulated

Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ)

5

drugs that act as lubricants and stool softeners used to prevent constipation

Emollients

6

"hyperolmolar laxatives" including salts or saline products, lactulose, and glycerin

Osmotics

7

"harsh" carthartics that cause water stool with abdominal cramping

Purgatives

8

drugs that promote ulcer healing by neutralizing hydrochloric acid and reducing pepsin activity; do not coat the ulcer; two types: systemic & nonsystemic

Antacids

9

thick, viscous, mucous material that provides a barrier between the mucosal lining and acidic gastric secretions; maintains the integrity of the gastric lining and is a defense against corrosive substances

Gastric Mucosal Barrier (GMB)

10

ulcer frequently occurring because of breakdown of the GMB

Gastric Ulcer

11

ulcer caused by hypersecretion of acid from the stomach passing into the duodenum because of (1) insufficient buffers to neutralize gastric acid in the stomach (2) defective pyloric sphincter or (3) hypermotility of the stomach

Duodenal Ulcer

12

inflammation or erosion of the esophageal mucosa caused by a reflux of gastric acid content from the stomach into the esophagus

Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease (GERD)

13

popular drugs used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers that block the H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach, thus reducing gastric acid secretion and concentration (EX: ranitidine, cimetidine, axid)

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonists (H2 Blockers)

14

acid released by the parietal cells of the stomach influenced by histamine, gastrin & acetylcholine

Hydrochloric Acid

15

broad term used for an ulcer occurring in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum within the upper GI tract

Peptic Ulcer

16

ulcer resulting from the reflux of acidic gastric secretions into the esophagus as a result of a defective or incompetent cardiac sphincter

Esophageal Ulcer

17

digestive enzyme activated at a pH of 2

Pepsin

18

ulcer following a critical situation such as extensive trauma or major surgery (burns, cardiac surgery)

Stress Ulcer

19

Nonpharmacological Management Techniques for Upper GI Disorders

Lifestyle changes!!!, low-fat food, increased exercise, eliminate alcohol, avoid chocolate, avoid caffeine, elevate HOB on blocks

20

vitamin required for development & maintenance of healthy eyes, gums, teeth, skin, hair & selected glands...needed for fat metabolism...in fortified milk, butter, eggs, leafy green & yellow veggies & fruits...naturally only in cod, halibut, shark & tuna...deficiency= dry skin, poor tooth development, night blindness

Vitamin A (Retinol)

21

vitamin that promotes use of sugars (energy) & required for good function of nervous system & heart...in enriched breads/cereals, yeast, liver, pork, fish, milk, lentils, blackstrap molasses...deficiency= sensory disturbances, retarded growth, fatique, anorexia, Wernicke encephalopathy (alcohol abuse)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

22

vitamin that promotes body's use of carbs, proteins & fats by releasing energy to cells & required for tissue integrity...in milk, enriched breads/cereals, liver, lean meat, eggs, almonds, wheat germ, soy, leafy green veggies...deficiency= visual defects (blurred vision & photophobia), cheilosis, rash on nose, extremity numbness

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

23

vitamin important in metabolism, protein synthesis, & formation of RBC...in lean meat, leafy green veggies, whole-grain cereals, yeast, bananas, salmon, soybeans, seeds, nuts, avacados, carrots...deficiency= neuritis, convulsions, dermatitis, anemia, lymphopenia

Vitamin B6 (Pyroxidine)

24

vitamin that functions as a building block of nucleic acids, forms RBC & facilitates functioning of nervous system...in liver, kidney, fish, milk, eggs, chicken, turkey...deficiency= GI disorders, poor growth, anemias (pernicious anemia) *vegetarians*

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

25

vitamin that helps in formation of genetic materials & proteins for the cell nucleus, assists in intestinal functioning & prevents selected anemias...in leafy green veggies, yellow fruits/veggies, yeast, organ meats, black-eyed peas, lentils...deficiency= decreased WBC & clotting factors, anemias, intestinal disturbances, depression (400 mcg/day in pregnancy)

Folic Acid (Folvite)

26

vitamine that promotes body's use of carbs, fats & proteins for the cell nucleus and is essential in formation of specific hormones & nerve-regulating substances...in eggs, leafy green veggies, nuts, liver, kidney, skim milk, seeds, nuts, wheat germ, salmon...deficiency= unknown in humans

Pantothenic Acid

27

vitamin in all body tissues necessary for energy-producing reactions and assists in nervous system...in eggs, meat, liver, beans, peas, enriched bread/cereals...deficiency= retarded growth, pellagra, HA, memory loss, anorexia, insomnia

Niacin

28

vitamin that synthesizes fatty acids & glucose for energy production and required by body chemical systems...in eggs, milk, leafy green veggies, liver, kidney...deficiency= unknown in humans

Biotin

29

vitamin that helps tissue repair & growth and required in formation of collagen...in citrus fruits, cantaloupe, tomatoes, leafy green veggies, sweet red peppers, potatoes, strawberries, kiwi...deficiency= poor wound healing, bleeding gums, scurvy, predisposition to infection

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

30

vitamin that promotes the use of phosphorus & calcium and important for strong teeth & bones...in fortified milk, egg yolk, tuna, salmon, liver...deficiency= Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults

Vitamin D (Calciferol)

31

vitamin that protects fatty acids & promotes formation and functioning of RBC, muscle, other tissues...in whole grain cereals, wheat germ, veggie oils, lettuce, sunflower seeds, milk, eggs, meat, avocados, asparagus...deficiency= breakdown of RBC

Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol)

32

vitamin essential for blood clotting...in leafy green veggies, liver, cheese, egg yolk, veggie oil, tomatoes...deficiency= increased clotting time, leading to increased bleeding & hemorrhage

Vitamin K

33

Categories for Justification of Vitamin Supplements

malabsorption, diarrhea, infectious dx, chronic dx (Chron's, celiac), inability to use vitamins (liver dx, renal dx, hereditary deficiencies), increased vitamin loss (fever from infection, hyperthyroidism, dialysis, cancer, starvation, crash diets), increased vitamin requirements (pregnancy, early childhood, cancer, alcoholism, GI surgery, special diets)

34

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

K.A.D.E...slowly metabolized, stored in fatty tissue, liver & muscle

35

mineral that is vital for hemoglobin formation (60% is found in hemoglobin)...in meat, fish, poultry, grains, veggies...increased doses needed during pregnancy...deficiency= fatigue, intolerance to cold, pale skin, anemia

Iron

36

Non-Heme Iron Absorption is Impaired By?

taking with coffee, tea, calcium, dried peas, rice, spinach, berries & cholocate

37

Non-Heme Iron Absorption is Enhanced By?

taking with vitamin C rich foods (OJ or tomato products)

38

Ususal Dose of Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

325 mg daily...PO, IM or IV

39

mineral that is a component of hemoglobin synthesis, wound healing, excess amounts = Wilson's dx

Copper

40

mineral that helps with common cold, excess= copper deficiency

Zinc

41

mineral that enhances the action of insulin...helps with diabetes & weight loss

Chromium

42

mineral that is an antioxidant...excess= garlic odor

Selenium

43

the most plentiful mineral in the body responsible for bone & teeth formation, blood clotting & nerve transmission...RDA 1000-1500 mg/day...in milk, cheese, yogurt, fortified OJ, almonds

Calcium

44

calcium supplement that is least expensive & is better absorbed when taken with food

Calcium Carbonate

45

calcium supplement that contains citric acid which is better absorbed in elderly people, less likely to cause constipation & better absorbed in empty stomach

Calcium Citrate

46

Nursing Interventions for IV Calcium

(1) assess renal fxn prior to administration (2) SLOW IV infusion (3) close pt. monitoring (4) monitor IV site

47

the most common intracellular cation that is poorly stored in the body but is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses & contract of the heart, skeletal & smooth muscles...RDA 40-60 mEq/day

Potassium

48

Reasons Patients Need Potassium Supplements

(1) on antibiotics (PCN) (2) taking K+ wasting diuretics (thiazides, loop diuretics)

49

Treatment for Hypokalemia

PO: liquid, powder or tablet that is irritating to stomach so give with full glass of fluid...IV: NEVER GIVE PUSH, ALWAYS DILUTE

50

Treatment for Hyperkalemia

K+ restriction, IV sodium bicarbonate, 10% calcium gluconate, insulin/glucose, kayexelate (PO or rectal enema)

51

Treatment for Hyponatremia

H2O restriction, 0.9% normal saline for mild case, 3% saline for levels of <115 mEq/L

52

Symptoms of Hypernatremia

FIRED! = Fever, Flushed Skin, Restless, Increased fluid retention, Increased BP, Edema, Decreased urinary output, Dry mouth

53

Treatment of Hypernatremia

dietary restrictions (2 of 4 gm/day)

54

electrolyte that promotes transmission of neuromuscular activity & contraction of myocardium

Magnesium

55

Treatment of Hypermagnesemia

calcium gluconate

56

Treatment of Hypomagnesemia

IV Mg sulfate

57

enteral feeding that is lactose free

Isocal

58

enteral feeding that is high in protein

Ultracal

59

enteral feeding that is high in fiber

Jevity

60

enteral feeding that is for diabetics

Glucerna

61

enteral feeding that is for respiratory patients

Pulmocare

62

Advantages of Continuous Enteral Feeding

improve tolerance, reduce risk of aspiration, increased time for nutrient absorption

63

Disadvantages of Continuous Enteral Feeding

restricts ambulation, more expensive

64

enteral feeding administered at specified times throughout the day generally in smaller volumes & at slower rate thatn bolus feedings but in larger/faster volumes than continuous drip feedings

Intermittent Enteral Feeding

65

enteral feeding administered via continuous drip over a period of 8-16 hrs usually nocturnally

Cyclic Enteral Feeding

66

ALERT Campaign for Enteral Safety

Aseptic technique, Label enteral equipment, Elevate HOB 30 deg, Right patient/formula/tube, Trace all lines/tubing back to patient

67

least desirable method of supplying nutrients to the body via IV for severe GI disturbances & patients unable to meet nutritional requirements...must be given over 24 hours & patient must be weaned off

Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)

68

line used to give isotonic or mildly hypertonic solutions during administration of TPN

PICC Line

69

line used when large amount of carbs are given through subclavian or internal jugular veins

Central Venous Catheter

70

Potential Complications of TPN

Pneumothorax, Air embolism, Hyper/Hypoglycemia, Hypervolemia, Infection

71

herb used for external pain relief & burn relief, constipation...S/E= arrythmias neuropathies, edema

Aloe Vera

72

herb used for digestive complaints, sedative effects...S/E= urticaria, bronchoconstriction if allergic to daisy or ragweed

Chamomile

73

herb used as all-purpose woman's tonic frequently mixed with fillers (vit B12)

Don Quai

74

herb that stimulates immune system used for colds, flu, recurrent URI & UTI...hepatoxic

Echinacea

75

herb that detoxifies & increased immune fxn, decreases platelet aggregation used for hypercholesterolemia & mild HTN

Garlic

76

herb used to stimluate digestion, as antispasmodic, to decrease platelet aggregation

Ginger

77

herb used as antioxidant, peripheral vasodilator & increased blood flow to CNS, helps with memory, decreased platelet aggregation

Ginkgo Biloba

78

herb used as antidepressant, antiviral, for anxiety, sleep disorders...drug interactions with transplant meds & antidepressants, not for HIV patients

St. John's Wort

79

herb that increases liver cell regeneration, slows cirrhotic disease, increases quality of life

Milk Thistle

80

herb used at mild sedative and sleep-inducing agent, "herbal valium" for anxiety...has dirty sock odor

Valerian

81

herb that decreases size of prostate, "plant catheter"

Saw Palmetto

82

act that classified herbs as "dietary supplements", made premarket testing not required, clarified marketing regulations...made no claims about prevention or curing of specific diseases

Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act of 1994

83

group of harmful chemicals

free radicals

84

used as a measurement of the concentration of IV solutions compared with the osmolality of body fluids

Tonicity

85

another name of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

Hyperalimentation (HA)