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Flashcards in GI & GU Systems Deck (62):
1

Name the regions:

Q image thumb

A image thumb
2

What organs will you find in the RUQ?

liver

gall bladder

duodenum

right kidney

3

What organs comprise the upper GU tract?

What organs comprise the lower GU tract?

kidneys

pelvicalcyceal system: urine collection which includes the ureters, bladder, and urethra

4

Describe the appearance of hematemesis.

coffee ground emesis

5

What is the medical term for "pain with swallowing"?

odynophagia

6

What are the symptoms for GI disorders?

Abdominal Pain
Indigestion, N/V
Early satiety when eating / loss of appetite
Dysphagia/odynophagia
Change in bowel function (diarrhea/constipation)
Jaundice/Liver disease

7

What region does urinary and renal disorders present on the patient?

suprapubic 

8

What are the symptoms of urinary and renal disorders?

Dysuria, urgency, or frequency
Hesitancy, decreased stream (males)
Polyuria or nocturia
Urinary incontinence
Hematuria
Kidney or flank pain
Ureteral colic

9

KNOW

What should you discuss with your kidney disease patient? (4)

History of kidney dysfunction
History of dialysis – last treatment, location and any problems with AV fistula
Medications
Daily urine production 

10

Define Ch.L.O.R.I.D.E.

Character of pain: ask patient to describe in own words
Location: have patient report location of the pain
Onset: timing of the pain (acute vs. chronic)
Radiation: Does the pain radiate?
Intensity or Severity of pain (1-10 scale)
Duration: how long has this pain been going on/lasts?
Exacerbating or alleviating factors: what worsens or improves pain? 

11

What are some other GI symptoms? 

heartburn
acid reflux/regurgitation
N/V
anorexia (loss of appetite)
early satiety

12

Name 3 GU functional adjuncts:

Ileal conduit

PD catheter

vascath

(depicted in clockwise order)

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13

What is the medical term for "difficulty swallowing (solids, liquids, or both) Intermittent or persistent"?

dysphagia

14

If patient is unable to pass gas and is distended with N/V , what may be our diagnosis?

bowel obstruction

15

How do you quantify an acute vs. chronic symptom?

acute is up to 2 weeks

chronic is beyond 2 weeks

16

The inability to excrete ingested water because of the hypovolemic stimulus to the release of antidiuretic hormone is what?

hyponatremia

17

What results if free water losses are not replaced?

hypernatremia

18

What can occur is there if a GI loss of potassium in the stool?

hypokalemia

19

What can occur with the GI loss of bicarbonate in the stool?

metabolic acidosis

20

What are the symptoms of GI bleeding? (2)

Melena: black tarry stools (signifies upper GI bleed)
Hematochezia: bright red blood (signifies lower GI bleed)

21

Odynophagia is painful swallowing and usually is infectious in nature.  True or false?

true

Typical infections include: herpes, candida, or CMV infections in an immunocompromised patient (malignancy or AIDS)

22

What is characterized by the yellowish discoloration of skin and sclerae from > levels of bilirubin?

jaundice

23

What is polyuria?

increase in 24 hour urine volume

24

What is severe pain that originates at the costovertebral angle and radiates to lower quadrants of the abdomen, upper thigh, or genitals?

Ureteral colic 

25

KNOW

What causes urinary incontinence? (9)

Pregnancy and childbirth
Changes with aging, Hysterectomy
Painful bladder syndrome (interstitial cystitis)
Prostatitis
Enlarged prostate
Prostate cancer
Bladder cancer or bladder stones
Neurological disorders
Obstruction

26

Where do you listen for bruits during an abdominal exam?

Listen over aorta, renal, iliac, and femoral arteries

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27

What is boborygmi?

“stomach growling”

28

What is the normal rate of clicks & gurgles sounds when listening to the bowels?

5 - 34 /minute

29

Bruits confined to systole are abnormal.  True or false?

false

They are normal.

30

How do you assess for peritoneal inflammation? (3)

  1. Ask patient to cough
  2. Map tenderness with 1 finger
  3. Assess for rebound tenderness (press fingers down slowly then release quickly)

31

What do you note when performing abdominal exam during light and deep palpation of the 4 quadrants?

tenderness

guarding (muscles contract as pressure is applied)

masses

32

How do you assess for costovertebral angle tenderness (CVA tenderness)? (3)

On pt's back:
  • Place ball of one hand in the costovertebral angle and strike it with the ulnar surface of your other fist
  • Use enough force to cause a perceptible but painless jar or thud in a normal person.
  • Pain is suggestive of pyelonephritis (kidney infection)

33

What are the risk factors for a AAA? 

 > 65 years of age

smoker

male

family history of AAA

34

What is ascites?

Ascites is fluid within the abdomen usually as result of end stage liver disease (cirrhosis) or malignancy.

35

In a patient with ascites, during an abdominal exam where will you hear tympany/dullness?

Ascites fluid typically sinks with gravity, whereas gas filled loops of bowel float to the top, percussion gives a dull note in dependent areas of the abdomen.

A image thumb
36

What are mechanical causes of bowel obstructions? (3)

adhesions

hernias

tumors

37

On PE, very high pitched bowel sounds indicate what?

full stomach

38

What is formed in the liver and therefore is a measure of hepatic function?

albumin

39

What is the normal range for albumin?

3.5 - 5.5 g/dL

40

What is AST and ALT?

Aspartate Aminotransferase

Alanine Aminotransferase

Both found in multiple tissues of the body (ie: liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle), but ALT predominantly in the liver.

41

What are normal values for AST / ALT?

7 - 40 U/L for both

42

What enzyme is found in the liver, biliary tract epithelium, and bone?

alkaline phosphatase

43

What is the normal value for alkaline phosphatase?

25-85 IU / L

44

What labs are used to detect and monitor pancreatic disease?

amylase 

lipase

45

What lab can indicate a dysfunction of metabolism?

bilirubin

46

What lab test assesses the extrinsic pathway of clot formation?

What are normal values for this test?

PT (Coumadin therapy)

10 - 15 seconds

47

What test assesses the intrinsic pathway of clot formation?

what are the normal values?

PTT (Heparin therapy)

25-38 seconds

48

PTT measures what blood factor that may be altered due to hepatocellular disease?

Factor VII

49

What test detects presence of this organism in patients with gastric or duodenal ulceration or inflammation?

Helicobacter pylori

50

What test:

  • measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood
  • is directly related to metabolic function of the liver and excretory function of the kidneys?

BUN

51

What are normal values for BUN?

7-21

52

What test:

  • rises later than BUN suggesting a more chronic disease process
  • depends on muscle mass which fluctuates very little

serum creatinine

53

If creatinine value doubles, what does this suggest?

50% reduction in GFR

54

What are normal creatinine values?

0.5 - 1.5 mg/dL

55

What lab test measures GFR?

creatinine clearance

56

At what levels of K do you need to be concerned about cardiac dysrhythmias? 

K < 2.5 mEq/L

K > 5.9 mEq/L

57

What nuclear medicine is injested in an upper GI series test?

barium

58

What anesthetic drugs do you use for upper endoscopies?

propofol

fentanyl

59

What procedure is perfomed to treat conditions of the bile ducts and main pancreatic duct, including biliary stones, strictures, certain malignancies, and other disorders?

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

60

What anesthetic drug do you use for colonoscopies?

propofol only

61

What can CT scans assess for within the GI? (4)

infection/inflammation

cancer

kidney/bladder stones

AAA

62

When may be a cystoscopy be recommended? 

Urinary tract infections
Hematuria
Incontinence or overactive bladder
Abnormal cells found in urine sample
Need for a bladder catheter
Painful urination, chronic pelvic pain, or interstitial cystitis
Urinary blockage from prostate enlargement, stricture, or narrowing
Stone in the urinary tract
Unusual growth, polyp, tumor, or cancer