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Flashcards in GI - ANDERSON Deck (26):
1

What cells secrete Histamine in the ST?
what triggers this?

Gastrin from G cells trigger ECL-cells to release Histamine which stimulates the Proton Pump and release of Gastric H+

2

What are the cells of the Duodenum and Jejunum that secrete and aid in digestion?

K --> GIP -> stimulate beta cells to release insulin
I -> CCK -> release of bile
S -> secretin -> stim. pancrease and GB to release BICARB

3

K cells of the SI release?

GIP

4

I cells of the SI release?

CCK

5

What is absorbed in the terminal ileum?
What about Iron?

bile salts and B12
- iron is absorbed in the duodenum

6

Primary Bile Acids

Cholic Acid
Chenodeoxycholic

7

Secondary Bile Acids are converted from primary via what?

bacteria in the SI
- Deoxycholic
- Lithocholic

8

Conjugation of bile acids makes BILE SALTS which is done by the _____ with AA's _____ and ______.

LR
- GLYCINE, TAURINE

9

RLE enzyme of bile acid synthesis?

7-alpha hydroxylase

10

B3, NAC, is used in what kinds of rxns?
Xu is called?

DEHYDROGENASE RXNS
Xu --> Pellagra

11

Remember, B5 is ...

CoA
- pantothenic acid

12

Active form of B6 is...

pyridoxal 5-phosphate
- AA metabolism
- needs Mg as cofactor

13

Homocysteine -> Methionine
vitamin needed?

B12 - COBALAMIN

14

B12 also frees _____ to make THF.

FOLATE

15

Vit C used in what type of RXNs?

HYDROXYLATION

16

Biotin used in what type of RXNs?

CARBOXYLASE
- if you eat too much raw egg, you will not absorb biotin

17

A stored mainly in LR as?

Retinyl Palmitate

18

E stored mainly in ?

FAT

19

Various forms of Vit D:
SKIN:
LR:
KD:

SKIN - D3 or Cholecalciferol
LR - 25 hydro D3
KD - 1-25-dihydro D3

20

D3 is made from what with the help of UV light?

7-hydroxycholesterol

21

25 hydro D3 can make two forms of D in the KD depending on Ca levels and PTH.
+PTH --->
-PTH --->

+PTH ---> 1-25 dihydro D3 (increase serum Ca)
-PTH ---> 24-25 dihydro D3 (decreases serum Ca)

22

Selenium is part of?
protects against?

Glutathione peroxidase
- mercury poisoning - heavy metals

23

Cobalt is part of vitamin?

B12 hence COBAlamin

24

CoQ10 is located where?
- made w cholesterol

ETC
- also an antioxidant
- made in the cholesterol pathway

25

Glutathione is a tripeptide made of?

Step 1: Glutamate + Cysteine
.... Cysteine is rate limiting component
.... w enzyme GGCS
Step2: Glycine added w GSH enz (glutathione synthetase)

26

Glutathione is preserved by?

Vit C