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Flashcards in GI Drugs 1&2 Deck (63):
1

What is omeprazole?

Proton Pump Inhibitor

2

Name 2 Proton Pump Inhibitors.

omeprazole
esomeprazole

3

What is Ranitidine?

Histamine H2 receptor antagonist

4

What is esomeprazole?

Proton Pump Inhibitor

5

what do Proton Pump Inhibitors do?

decrease gastric acid secretion,
potent irreversible binding

6

gynecomastia is a side effect of?

Ranitidine

7

Which antacid causes diarrhoea?

Magnesium hydroxide/carbonate/etc/

8

Which antacid(s) cause constipation?

Aluminum hydroxide
calcium carbonate

9

What can cause rebound acidity?

calcium carbonate

10

Sodium Bicarb is dangerous for kids because?

cause systemic alkalosis = kidney damage

11

What is sucralfate?

cytoprotective agent to 'coat' stomach again acid

12

Aluminum hydroxide side effect?

constipation

13

Name me a cytoprotective agent?

sucralfate

14

side effect of calcium carbonate?

constipation

15

Hyoscine butylbromide is a?

spasmolytic: muscarinic receptor antagonist

16

what is Hyoscine butylbromide used for?

block motility

17

Hyoscine butylbromide is tertiary or quaternary? absorbed?

quaternary
not absorbed

18

What is a direct spasmolytic?

mebeverine
peppermint oil

19

Misoprostol is a?

Protaglandin E analogue

20

What do Protaglandin E analogues do? 3 things

increase mucous
increase flow
decrease gastric secretions

21

Misoprotol and pregnant women =

DANGER, can cause uterine contractions leading to abortion

22

are antiemetic drugs for everyone?

nope, dangerous for kids/elderly cause of hydration

23

Name me a prostaglandin E analogue.

Misoprostol

24

Promethazine is a?

H1 receptor antagonist

25

big side effect of promethazine?

sedation

26

name a muscarinic receptor antagonist anti-emetic drug.

hyoscine hydrobromide

27

name an H1 receptor antagonist:

promethazine

28

What happens if you take Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists for too long?

risk of extrapyramidal side effects, parkinson's like symptom

29

What is prochlorperazine?

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists

30

What does Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists drugs do?

anti-emetic

31

Does Hyoscine hydrobromide absorbed? tertiary? quaternary?

tertiary
absorbed past blood brain barrier

32

what is Prochlorperazine?

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists

33

When do you normally use Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists ?

for nausea associated with cancer treatments

34

What class of drugs were discovered within the Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists ?

anti-psychotics

35

chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting is inside or outside blood brain barrier? why?

outside so susceptible to more different kinds of stimuli

36

how to treat gastric stasis or gastroparesis?

metoclopramide cause it's a pro-motility drug (5HT4 agonist)

37

What is ondansetron?

seretonin 5HT3 antagonist antiemetic

38

What does a 5HT4 agonist do?

increase upper gastric motility, no diarrhoea

39

What is Aprepinant?

Neurokinin 1 anti-emetic

40

dexamathasone used for what?

severe vomiting

41

Cannabanoids have have what kind of effects on vomiting?

anti-emetic

42

why does it take longer to poo again after laxative?

entire colon is empty, takes time to refill

43

what happens if you have too much fibre and slow transit?

impacted bowel

44

Name a Neurokinin-1 Receptor antagonist.

Aprepinant

45

definition of constipation?

less than 3 times a week with straining and hard stool

46

What can drugs cause constipation?

antipsychotics
alum/Ca antacids
Opiods

47

Name 2 bulking agents

Bran
Psyllium

48

How do bulking agents work?

absorb water>more bulk>stim bowel stretch receptors>poo

49

name a faecal softener/lubricant

docusate

50

Docusate with Senna is what?

faecal softener with a stimulant laxative

51

What was used as a faecal lubricant in the old days

liquid paraffin

52

Name a saline osmotic laxative?

Magnesium sulphate(Epsom salts)

53

What is a disaccharide hydrophilic colloid?

Lactulose: increases bulk via osmosis

54

Sorbitol is a?

polyols

55

Magnesium sulphate(Epsom salts) are?

saline osmotic laxative

56

What is bisacodyl?

potent stimulant laxative

57

Name 2 stimulant laxatives

bisacodyl
senna

58

name a polyol similar to lactulose

sorbitol

59

Lactulose is what kind of drug?

disaccharide hydrophilic colloid

60

what is coloxil? when do you use it?

docusate + senna
to counter effects of opioids

61

Name one opioid antidiarrhoeal drug

loperamide

62

What is simethicone?

defoaming polymer for flatulence treatment

63

What is loperamide?

opioid antidiarrhoeal drug